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Handcraft In Wood And Metal | by John Hooper and Alfred J. Shirley



A handbook of training in their practical working for teachers, students and craftsmen

TitleHandcraft In Wood And Metal
AuthorJohn Hooper, Alfred J. Shirley
PublisherThe Manual Arts Press
Year1913
Copyright1913, The Manual Arts Press
AmazonHandcraft In Wood And Metal

By John Hooper. Late Lecturer and Instructor to the London County Council Joint Author of "Modern Cabinet Work" Honours Silver Mediallist (City and Guilds of London Institute)

and Alfred J. Shirley, Technical Instructor and lecturer on Metal Work to the London County Council

Handcraft In Wood And Metal 1
-Preface
In preparing this work the authors have endeavoured to show the possibilities of craftwork as an educational subject, and to briefly indicate its cultural aspects. One of the prejudices against han...
-Chapter I. Historical Notes On Craftwork
Note The illustrations are numbered consecutively through each chapter, and the numbering of each chapter is independent of the rest. The pages of collected illustrations have one figure number, th...
-I. Wood
I do not think that any man but one of the highest genius could do anything in those days without much study of ancient art, and even he would be much hindered if he lacked it.-William Morris. Th...
-II. Metals And Metal-Working
While history has always a sentimental value, it has also an indirect, and at the same time through tradition a very direct, bearing on workshop practice. It is besides very interesting, and no apolog...
-II. Metals And Metal-Working. Part 2
Bronze Age During the later part of the time known as theCopper Age,gold, silver, copper, and tin seem to have been in general use, and this brings us to the period known as the Bronze Age,which l...
-II. Metals And Metal-Working. Part 3
Iron Age Iron was now gradually coming into use, but it did not displace bronze to any extent, so that the earlyIron Age overlapped the later Bronze Agein the same way as with the Stone, Copper...
-II. Metals And Metal-Working. Part 4
Seventeenth And Eighteenth Centuries Wood becoming scarce, owing to being used (in the form of charcoal) for the production of cast iron, an Act of Parliament was passed during the reign of Elizabe...
-Chapter II. First Year Models (Wood). Ruler, Flower-Stick, And Key Rack (Fig. 1)
Object Models designed chiefly to introduce exercises in planing and sawing. The Process Round Ruler.-For class work, one piece of wood 12 x 7/8 in. square should be issued to each student. A...
-A Half-Lapped Frame (Figs. 2, 3, And 4)
Object To illustrate the application of a previously constructed joint, i.e. half-lapped joint, to a simple woodworking model. The decoration provides an opportunity for tasteful treatment, and can...
-Watch Stand (Fig. 5)
Object A model to introduce simple sawing, planing, chiselling, and filing (if curve of back is considered undesirable a straight line can be substituted), also as an exercise in stencilling. ...
-Pin And Pen Trays (Fig. 6)
Note Nos. 1 and 2, and the perspective sketch on p. 17, illustrate a pen tray, to be executed in American whitewood, and designed in order to introduce sawing, planing, and gouging. No. 3 is the se...
-Chapter III. Second Year Models (Wood). Knife Box (Fig. 1)
Note The knife box, detail drawings of which are shown in Fig. 1, perspective sketch in Fig. 2, should be made of American white-wood or yellow pine. If used for spoons, forks, etc., mahogany would...
-A Clock Case (Fig. 4)
Object To produce a useful model embodying very elementary processes, viz. sawing, smoothing, shooting, grooving, and nailing. An American clock is utilized for the movement. This must have three s...
-Glove Or Handkerchief Box (Fig. 5)
Object To embody elementary processes in a simple model. The first year example is whitewood nailed together with stencil decoration. The second year example shows the application of through dov...
-Knocker And Name Plate (Fig. 7)
Note Though wood is not generally used for door knockers, some excellent specimens have been executed in this material, notably those at Gwydir Castle, Wales. In one a conventional rendering of a l...
-A Table Book-Stand (Figs. 8 And 9)
Object To show an application of lapped dovetailing to a simple model. Also to introduce simple chamfered moulding, shaping, and inlaying. The length of the model can conveniently range from 11 in....
-Tea Trays (Fig. 10)
Object A useful model showing the application of a simple angle joint, viz. tongueing. In the case of the alternate constructive detail shown, viz. diminished and housed dovetailing, this is more s...
-Chapter IV. Third Year Models (Wood). A Hanging Lamp Bracket (Fig. 1)
Object A model designed chiefly to introduce shaping, cutting with bow saw, and working with spokeshave and file. Also as an exercise in simple recessing. The Joints introduced are a simple mort...
-Mirror Or Picture Frames (Figs. 4-6)
Tooled, Inlayed, and Stencilled. Object To show applications of a long and short shouldered mortise and tenon joint to a tenoned-up frame. Three shapes are illustrated, embodying similar constru...
-Candle Bracket (Fig. 7)
Object To show the possibility of combining metal and woodworking processes in one model. The Joints employed in the woodworking portion are a double mortise and tenon joint, with single ditto o...
-Finger Plates (Fig. 8)
Object To introduce various exercises in a complete model, involving manipulation of gouges and grounding tools as special practice for hand and eye. Note The third, fourth and fifth examples...
-Bread Platters (Fig. 10)
Object To introduce bow sawing and filing exercises. These models are specially valuable for good hand and eye training. Whilst general features are followed, there is ample scope for individual ta...
-Chapter V. Special Models In Wood For Evening Pupils And Others. Swing Toilet Mirror (Fig. 1)
Object A model designed chiefly upon the use of mortise and tenon joints, and to show the application of simple geometrical painted decoration, strapwork carving, or recessing and chamfered ornamen...
-An Upholstered Stool (Fig. 4)
Note The model is based upon stools of the Queen Anne period so far as general outline is concerned. The treatment of the under-railing is essentially modern. Turning for work of this character is ...
-Stationery Case (Fig. 6)
Note An advanced model introducing secret mitred and lapped dovetailing in carcase, with decoration based upon veneer inlaid and incised, with vee tool cuts filled with wax composition. The Proc...
-Occasional Tables (Figs. 10 And 11)
The Rim The elevation and plan shows a suitable treatment for this type of furniture; a half-plan shows the method of forking the legs into the rim, a general constructive feature of circular and e...
-Occasional Table (Fig. 11)
Object A model to introduce simple general principles of table construction, the principles being similar to those necessary for hall, draught, chess, and writing tables, etc. The Joints are all...
-Occasional Table (Fig. 11). Continued
The Decoration Various treatments for the decoration of the tablet are shown. The first consists of simple gouge tooling. The second shows a design for carving, which would first be cut to outline ...
-Chapter VI. First Year Models (Metal). Escutcheons
Their Use Used to protect the keyholes cut in doors so that the holes do not get broken away by continually putting the key into the lock. When made with a cover they prevent dust getting into the ...
-First Year Models: Metal. Metal Models: Tools, Etc. (Fig. 3)
Special Features Although the escutcheon is taken as an example of how it is possible to add difficulty and a new tool operation in successive steps to a simple form, there are many other objects w...
-Metal Mountings For A Chest. Angle And Corner Plates
Object And Uses Used for the strengthening of chests and also form an ornamental feature. Introducing development of surfaces. The Joints When the corner plates are bent up they form what is ...
-A Scheme Of Work: Metal Appliances
Object And Uses A course of graduated models; introducing many processes and arranged in order of difficulty. The Joints The methods of joining metals involved in the various models are as fo...
-Chapter VII. Second Year Models (Metal)
Drawer Handles Fig. 1. These are most suitable if made in iron and finished armour bright. The Process The back-plate should now be made first from 14 or 16 I.S.W.G. metal, and the rectangula...
-Iron Grilles (Fig. 3)
Uses For protecting small windows. These provide excellent practice in bending and riveting. Joints Halved, tenoned, and riveted. The Processes consist of making a full-size drawing on str...
-Finger Plates (Fig. 4)
Object And Use Finger plates are used for fixing on doors so that the paint is not disfigured by handling, also to form decorative features. The Process These should be made from 18 or 16 LS....
-Turned Work
Object And Uses In Fig. 6 there are drawn a number of objects suitable for elementary exercises in turning and allied operations. They comprise a Main or Master Chuck, for fitting to the nose-piece...
-Turned Work. Part 2
A Loose Centre I. Cut off a piece of steel 1 in. longer than the finished length. 2. Anneal, square the ends, centre them. 3. Drill 1/8 in. or 5/32 in. holes in. deep in both ends. ...
-Turned Work. Part 3
Notes On Turning As all these objects involve various kinds of turning and in different materials, the methods of holding the turning tools shown in Figs. 7 and 8 will no doubt be useful, and the v...
-Chapter VIII. Third Year Models (Metal). Hammered Dishes Or Paterae And Bowls (Fig. 1)
These models can be used for a variety of purposes, the flat dishes for card trays, standing glasses on, etc. ; the simple bowls if tinned or silvered inside make nice sugar bowls, etc. They could be ...
-Third Year Models (Metal). Hammered Dishes Or Paterae And Bowls (Fig. 1). Continued
The Decoration This is all on simple lines, and involves only simple processes. The decoration on plate No. 1, Fig. 1, could be omitted, thus simplifying it, and the number of flutes in plate No. 2...
-Tripods
Subject And Uses The footman or tripod illustrated in Fig. 6 is a most useful article for standing on the hearth, as kettles, plates, etc., can thus be kept warm. The top lends itself to a great va...
-Ax Oil-Can
Subject An oil-can, a most necessary and useful object in a metal workshop, and in making this a large variety of processes have to be gone through. The Joints They are lap, folded, cramped, ...
-Chapter IX. Special Models In Metal For Evening Pupils And Others. Turned Brass Candlestick (Fig. 1)
Object Useful model suitable for a second or third-year student; shows application of pattern and core box making, turning in wood and metal, screwing and drilling. Material Required:- ...
-Wrought-Iron Candlestick (Fig. 3)
Object To embody various processes in a simple model, suitable for a second-year student. Shows the application of chopping out, filing, drilling, turning, embossing, bending, brazing, screwing,...
-Hinges (Figs. 4 And 5)
Subject The hinges which are illustrated in Fig. 4 are Elizabethan in character, but the large one is distinctly Dutch. Fig. 4.-Examples of Jacobean hinges. Fig. 5. - Strap hinges...
-Handles (Fig. 3)
Subject And Uses In Fig. 6 are illustrated a number of handles of various types, involving many processes, and the use of many metals. With very little alteration they could be used for many other ...
-The Complete Poker
This would be most suitable if all in iron, and it would be made in three pieces, namely, the handle, the rein, and the bit; these when finished would all be welded together. The Handle 1. Make ...
-Method Of Making A Cage Handle
Subject And Uses The drawings in Fig. 7 illustrate the method of making a cage handle, which is very suitable for fire implements. This is excellent practice in light smithing. Fig. 7.-Pro...
-Chapter X. Historic Craftwork And Its Application To Classwork
Handcraft or manual training should-as has been previously indicated-not be restricted to mere hand training or dexterity, but should aim in the widest sense at a general understanding and appreciatio...
-Historic Craftwork And Its Application To Classwork. Continued
(A) Roman With semicircular head. Noting characteristics such as the principle of the Roman arch, which superseded the post and lintel construction used by the Greeks. Teacher to indicate by means ...
-Chapter XI. Materials Used In Handcraft Work Classification, Distribution, Description. Timber
Timbers-Mother of Pearl-Blue Pearl-Japanese Pearl-Ivory--Tortoise-shell. After all the trees have been cut down, it will be necessary for the arts to cease.-Palissy (16th cent.). Timber is the ...
-Timber. Part 2
Chart II. Illustrating Effect Of Climatic Conditions On The Growth Of Timber Trees Order. Range of Temperature between Isotherms. Common Name. Bot...
-Effect Of Climatic Conditions on Timber Growth
One of the most important factors in the growth of timber is climate. This accounts for the wide distribution of many types, for instance, pines, firs, and spruces are almost universally distributed, ...
-Identification of Hard and Soft Woods
(1) By Transverse Section Coniferous timbers, such as the pines, exhibit clearly defined annual rings, the autumn growth being darker in colour than the inner ring or spring growth. There are no vi...
-The Growth Of An Oak-Tree
An object lesson on the growth of an oak-tree could be given with the aid of large charcoal diagrams made preferably from the actual tree, leaves, etc., or from the drawings in Figs. 1 and 2 of this c...
-Metals
The word metalis derived from the Greek word metallon which means a pit or a mine, whence we getmetal. Technically it is a term applied to a number of elementary substances which possess, genera...
-Alloys
When two or more metals are caused permanently to unite the resulting mixture is called an Alloy. The term is also used for similar mixtures of metals and non-metals, such as iron and carbon = steel. ...
-The Characteristics Of Metals And Alloys
It is their weight, lustre, malleability, conductivity, tenacity, ductility, fusibility, power of solidifying, hardness, and softness that make the metals so extremely useful. A short account of their...
-The Characteristics Of Metals And Alloys. Part 2
Solidification All metals solidify after fusion, and the temperature at which they change from the liquid to the solid state is known as thefreezing-point. Alloys in solidifying very often alter,...
-The Characteristics Of Metals And Alloys. Part 3
Aluminium Bronze An alloy the colour of gold, is fairly malleable, and can be forged at a red heat; takes a beautiful polish if burnished. Cleaned by immersion in dipping acid; goes a rich brown wh...
-The Characteristics Of Metals And Alloys. Part 4
Delta Metal A yellow malleable alloy; takes a fine polish. Can be cleaned by immersion in dipping acid; does not tarnish in moist air. Can be annealed by bringing to a red heat and cooling in air. ...
-The Characteristics Of Metals And Alloys. Part 5
Lead A grey malleable metal, very soft, marks paper; can only be brought to a dull polish. Should be cleaned by scraping or caustic soda; darkens slightly on exposure to the atmosphere, but after t...
-The Characteristics Of Metals And Alloys. Part 6
Nickel A brilliant white metal, malleable, ductile, tenacious, and can be welded; takes a high polish. Does not readily discolour on exposure to the atmosphere. Is cleaned by immersion in dilute ni...
-The Characteristics Of Metals And Alloys. Part 7
Tin A white metal, with a yellowish tinge, very malleable; takes a good polish. Can be cleaned by immersion in hydrochloric acid and water. With care it may be soft soldered. It is little affected ...
-The Extraction Of Metals
The extraction of metals from their ores is usually described as metallurgy, and metallurgical chemistry is a special branch of chemical science which is usually conducted on a large scale at high tem...
-Chapter XII. Drawing, Design, Lettering, Etc. Applied To Wood And Metal Work
This chapter is intended to deal chiefly with the special application of drawing to the practice of wood and metal work, and as an aid to the effective teaching and demonstrating of the above subjects...
-Drawing, Design, Lettering, Etc. Applied To Wood And Metal Work. Continued
Design It is a matter of extreme difficulty to lay down certain formula for this elusive subject. Certain sizes of objects have been decided by custom, tradition, and fitness for a definite purpose...
-Drawing, Design, Lettering, Etc. Applied To Wood And Metal Work. Continued. Continued
All the articles shown in these pages have the names of the various metals of which they should be made; and on examination it will be found that there is a wide difference between what should be cast...
-Chapter XIII. Decorative Processes. In Wood And Metal Work
Art is man added to nature.-Bacon. Inlaying is an art of great antiquity. The terra may be regarded as equivalent to the Latininterserere,to insert. Inlaying proper consists of cutting out thin p...
-Chapter XIII. Decorative Processes. In Wood And Metal Work. Continued
Fig. 4.-Various specimens of pictorial overlaying from Bethnal Green Museum. Various London museums and the Louvre display specimens of inlaying of ancient Assyrian and Egyptian origin, remar...
-Decorative Processes. In Wood And Metal Work. Continued
Wax Inlaying This is another traditional type of decoration, rather unjustly abused in some quarters. Theoretically the application of wax inlaying may be wrong, it being contended that its composi...
-Veneering
As a form of decoration veneering is a valuable process. It can be employed with advantage in nearly all kinds of furniture and advanced models, and affords good opportunities for the exercise of good...
-Decorative Processes In Metalwork
Applique Or Applied Ornament Rosettes, wreaths, medallions, and enamels are often applied to plain surfaces, and all except the enamels could be fixed by brazing, silver soldering, soft soldering, ...
-Decorative Processes In Metalwork. Continued
Embossed Work Punch decoration or repousse work is that kind of work on which designs are raised from the back by means of punches and hammers of many shapes and sizes. The work is usually on thin ...
-Enamelling
This is the name given to vitrified substances applied chiefly to the surfaces of metals. It is executed in various ways and styles, and is known as Plain enamelling, which is simply the application o...
-Engraved And Punched Decoration
Decorative processes in metal-work date back to very remote times, and the early tools and objects in metal in our museums show how decorative effects can be produced by very simple means. The early f...
-Filigree
This consists mainly of round wires, soldered together in various patterns, sometimes, with little metal balls and little leaves soldered to the ends of the wires, producing a most charming effect. Va...
-Inlaying;
This very ancient and historic method of ornamenting metal produced some remarkable examples of craftsmanship, and the many pieces of work shown in the British Museum of Saracenic and Persian origin s...
-Metal Spinning
This process deals with the working up of thin sheet metal on a lathe, and only applies to what is known as hollow ware. It is a cheaper and quicker method of making such things as reflectors, tea and...
-Chapter XIV. Tools: Their Early Forms & Historical Development. Introductory
Without tools man is nothing, with tools he is all.-Carlyle. The smith came holding in his hands the tools-the instruments of his craft, anvil and hammer and well-made pincers, wherewith he wrought...
-The Saw
The first tool to be dealt with is the saw. Its antiquity is indicated by many classical references, and there are references in Isaiah to saws and planes. Illustrations of various saws from earliest ...
-The Chisel
The term is derived from the French wordciseau,the Latinseco(I cut) having a similar meaning, and may safely be supposed to have been practically the first tool used by primitive man. It is the foreru...
-The Evolution Of The Hammer
In Fig. 4 an attempt has been made to show the gradual development of the ordinary hand hammer from the earliest known types. The illustrations show broadly the various stages it has passed through an...
-Forms Of Drilling Appliances
A tool or appliance for making a hole is a world-wide necessity. So early was the need felt that the drill is of unknown antiquity, but the reproductions on the next page show a few methods and applia...
-Chapter XV. Supplementary Processes And Data For Object Lessons On Metals. Hardening And Tempering Of Metals
This may be accomplished in many ways according to the nature of the material. Nearly all metals can be hardened by rolling, hammering, stretching, bending, or by the addition of other metals. They ca...
-Methods For Distinguishing Tool Steels From Mild Steels And Wrought Iron
By fracture or examination of the grain- Wrought Iron has a rough fibrous fracture. Good quality wrought iron has a fine fibrous fracture. Outside appearance is of a dull black colour with reddish ...
-Casting Or Founding
is the art of working metals by pouring them while in a fluid condition into moulds where they solidify and harden into the form of the mould they fill. It is the most important of the operations by w...
-Cleaning, Finishing, And Preserving Of Metalwork
Many of the articles shown in these pages could be made of brass, bronze, copper, German silver, or similar metals, and it must not be forgotten that finish is most important, but this depends on the ...
-Cleaning, Finishing, And Preserving Of Metalwork. Continued
Matt Dip For Brass, Etc Dissolve 6 oz. clean sheet zinc in 1 gal. hot nitric acid, then pour in sulphuric acid slowly until dip looks white, then heat to 1600 F. and test; if too coarse add sulphur...
-Methods Of Joining Metals
In all kinds of metalwork a knowledge of how metals may be joined together is essential. Joints are either permanent or temporary. Permanent joints can be made by burning, autogenous welding, ordinary...
-Methods Of Joining Metals. Part 2
Soft Soldering This consists of well cleaning the parts to be soldered, applying a suitable flux (for this see p. 188), heating the metal, and applying just sufficient solder to make the joint. Sof...
-Methods Of Joining Metals. Part 3
Table Showing Method By Which Metals May Be Joined Name of Metal. Soft Soldered. Silver Soldered. Brazed. Autogenous Soldering or Burning, in...
-Hints When Working Metals
Annealing Metals:- 1. Anneal zinc with a Bunsen burner, not a blowpipe, or it may volatilize. 2. When annealing aluminium mark over with common soap and warm until soap turns black; it is then a...
-Chapter XVI. Buildings, Equipment, And Tools For Technical And Handcraft Centres. The Woodworking Shop
The essential feature of a properly equipped workshop for technical or handcraft work is a lofty, well-lighted spacious room, so arranged as to render classrooms easily accessible, one of these if pos...
-Buildings, Equipment, And Tools For Technical And Handcraft Centres. The Woodworking Shop. Continued
Flooring Parquetry or wood floors of pine or yellow deal are preferable to those made of teak wood, affording a better grip for the feet and not becoming slippery so rapidly. Projecting portions of...
-Tools
Planes Fig. 6 (4) illustrates a Trying Plane, used for obtaining perfectly true surfaces, shooting joints, squaring ends upon a shooting board, in fact for practically every planing process that re...
-Tools. Continued
Chisels And Gouges The Firmer Chisel, see Fig. 9 (2), is so called because it is the firmest type of paring chisel. Firmer chisels are made from 1/16-1 1/2 in. wide of well-tempered steel, and used...
-Gauges
The Mortise Gauge (11), is made in several qualities and styles of finish, chiefly in rosewood or ebony with brass fittings. The type illustrated is most serviceable, and does not require the use of a...
-Metalworking Tools And Their Uses (Fig. 16)
The tools illustrated in Fig. 16 are as follows:- (1) Centre Punch Sometimes called a mitre punch. Used for marking work of all descriptions, also for dotting the place where holes have to be dr...
-Metalworking Tools And Their Uses (Fig. 16). Continued
(13) Star Hack Saw Used for steel and iron as well as other metals. Frame of cast-iron, blades 8 in. long, hardened, cannot be filed. Teeth 14 to the inch. Can also be had with twenty-three teeth p...
-Smith's Tools
The tools illustrated in Fig. 19 are some of those that are used in the forging of metals. Fig. 19.-Smith's tools. Description of Fig. 19 {continued). The first few numbers show some of...
-Smith's Tools. Part 2
(19) Round Drift Punch Used for punching round holes. (20 And 21) Scroll Wrenches Used for bending metal into different forms; (20) is forged out of one piece of metal, and in (21) the fork i...
-Smith's Tools. Part 3
(7) Straight Pane Sledge Hammer A useful weight is about 8 lb. (8) Box Tongs for holding flat iron rod. (9) Fitter's Or Metalworker's Brace It has a taper square hole for the drills and th...
-Smith's Tools. Part 4
(27) Rivet Set Used for setting down the metal after the rivet has been placed in position. At the side of the hole there is a hollow cup for rounding up the tail of the rivet after it has been ham...
-Smith's Tools. Part 5
(18) Lathe Tool Holder Used for holding high-speed steel turning tools. As these small tools can be ground on an emery wheel, and the holder takes the strain of the cutting, steel of small section ...
-The Metalworking Shop
When setting out a metalworking shop for the purpose of giving instruction, the main idea should not be how much work can be turned out in a given time, or how much labour-saving machinery can we put ...
-Chapter XVII. Theory Of Cutting Actions Of Tools
There are many methods of cutting metals and necessarily many cutting tools, and a general knowledge of the main principles of the methods is of importance to any one who has to manipulate metals. ...
-Theory Of Cutting Actions Of Tools. Part 2
Saws Thehack sawillustrated in Fig. 1, No. 3, which should be held as illustrated in Ch. XVI, f. 1 7, is used only on soft metals, and the angle to which the teeth should be filed is shown in Fig...
-Theory Of Cutting Actions Of Tools. Part 3
Shearing And Punching Shearing is explained in the early part of this chapter, and the action is the same in punching, as both edges cut in each case, and both act on the two sides of the metal. Th...
-Theory Of Cutting Actions Of Tools. Part 4
Turning This is partially explained in the early portion of this book (p. 79) and also by the diagram No. 1 on p. 223, but further, the most suitable angles for the various metals are approximately...
-Theory Of Cutting Actions Of Tools. Part 5
Fusing Wrought-iron and steel plates, and structures of all sorts, are now cut up by oxygen, and it is a process based on the fact that a jet of oxygen directed upon a previously heated spot of met...







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