Timbers-Mother of Pearl-Blue Pearl-Japanese Pearl-Ivory--Tortoise-shell.

After all the trees have been cut down, it will be necessary for the arts to cease."-Palissy (16th cent.).

Timber is the product of"exogenous(outward growing) trees, as distinct from the"endogenous" varieties (in which are included palms), growing or forming wood of inward growth. Practically the only exception to the general use of exogenous timber in woodworking is the use of palm, known more commonly as partridge and lacewood from its peculiar markings. Exogenous trees are again divided 'into two classes, hardwood and softwood trees respectively, broad and needle-leaved trees. This classification is botanical rather than commercial, for some woods of a hard texture, such as the yew, belong to the needle-leaved class. On the other hand, whitewood and poplar are soft in texture though belonging to the hardwood class botanically.

Chart I on the next page indicates the commercial and botanical classification of some timbers, which are, with the exception of yew, beech, and poplar, used in handcraft work.

Reference to Chart I will show the rather misleading classification of timbers, and this list could of course be extended indefinitely.

Chart I. Showing Botanical And Commercial Classification Of Some Timbers

Botanical Order.

Common Name.

Commercial Classification.

Botanical Classification.

Geographical Distribution.

Meliaceae

Mahogany: Cuba, Spanish, Honduras.

Hardwood.

Hardwood, Broad leaf.

British Honduras, West Indies, Nicaragua.

Taxineae

Yew.

Hardwood.

Softwood, Needle leaf.

Europe generally, Northern and Western Asia, and North Africa, California, and Japan.

Cupuliferae .

Beech.

Hardwood.

Hardwood, Broad leaf.

Europe generally,

America,

Canada.

Populus

Poplar.

Softwood.

Softwood, Broad leaf.

Europe generally, North America, Northern Asia, Northern Africa.

Pinus

Yellow Pine.

Softwood.

Softwood, Needle leaf.

North America.

Magnoliaceae

American Whitewood.

Softwood.

Hardwood, Broad leaf.

Eastern North America.

Juglandaceae

Black Walnut.

Hardwood.

Hardwood, Broad leaf.

Eastern North America.

Cupuliferae .

Oak.

Hardwood.

Hardwood, Broad leaf.

Europe and the world generally.