(19) Round Drift Punch

Used for punching round holes.

(20 And 21) Scroll Wrenches

Used for bending metal into different forms; (20) is forged out of one piece of metal, and in (21) the fork is forged from one piece, and a handle made from a piece of gas barrel is shrunk on.

(22) Scroll Iron

When doing a number of pieces which are all the same shape it is quicker to make a scroll iron and bend all the scrolls on it by holding the end of the iron at the centre and pulling it round (usually when the iron is at a red heat), thus making them all alike.

(23) Scroll Horn Or Fork

It is put in the vice and used in conjunction with (20 and 21).

(24) Smith's Shovel Or Slice

For use at the forge fire.

(25) Poker

Used at the smith's fire. The end is turned up so that the clinker which forms at the bottom of the fire can be picked out.

(26) Smith's Rake

Used for pulling the fuel over the work in the fire, etc.

(27) Hardie Or Anvil Cutter

Used for cutting off pieces of bar or rod iron either hot or cold. The hardie fits into the square hole in the tail of the anvil. The iron is laid across the edge of the hardie and the iron is struck with the hand hammer. The iron is then reversed and process repeated, a slight tap and the iron breaks off.

The illustrations in Fig. 20 are of the plant and tools largely used by the smith:-

(1) Portable Forge, fitted with a hood, and has a solid tue iron or tuyere of cast iron. The other part of the forge is of wrought iron riveted together. Forges are made in various sizes, and the sizes are those of the bed or hearth, and the one illustrated is 33 x 27 in. The hearth should be about 2 ft. 3 in. from the floor.

(2) Double-blast Circular Bellows, made in various sizes. The nozzle is connected to the bellows by means of a piece of leather tubing. If the bellows are at a little distance from the forge, the blast is conducted to the back of the tue iron by means of large-bore gas barrel. The size is the diameter.

(3) Grindstone

The size of this is known by the diameter and width of the face of the stone. The one illustrated is 36 x 5 in. The stone itself is either of natural sandstone, or of some artificial composition. They are of different degrees of coarseness and hardness, and some of the names are as follows: Yorkshire, Newcastle Blue, Bilston. The stone should not rest in water for any length of time as this tends to soften it and so make it wear unevenly.

(4) Hand-drilling Machine, one of the simplest forms. Made mostly of cast iron, except the spindles, which are of wrought iron. The drill is fed downwards by means of the hand wheel on top, and holes up to 1 in. diameter can be easily drilled with it.

(5) Smith's Anvil And Stand

The anvil is of wrought iron faced with steel. The parts are as follows: The horn or beak; the chopping step or block or table,

Fig. 20. Smith's plant and tools.

Fig. 20.-Smith's plant and tools.

Description of Fig. 20 {continued). which is left soft for cutting on; the face, which is hardened and slightly rounded; the tail, which has a square and a round hole in it and is flat. The square hole is for bottom tools, and the round hole is for use when punching small holes. Underneath the tail there is usually a hole which is for placing a lever in, to assist in lifting the anvil. The stand is of cast iron. A tree trunk half-buried in the ground makes a good stand, as it absorbs vibration and does not jump like the cast-iron stands.

(6) Lever Shearing Machine for cutting thick sheets and bar iron. That portion which shears the rods is called the cropper.