Chisels And Gouges

The Firmer Chisel, see Fig. 9 (2), is so called because it is the firmest type of paring chisel. Firmer chisels are made from 1/16-1 1/2 in. wide of well-tempered steel, and used for general chisel work where striking with a hammer or mallet is not necessary. A Paring Chisel is shown in (1), the blade of extra length, and used for work inaccessible to a firmer chisel. The width of blade varies from 3/4-1 1/2 in. All chisels are made with either square or bevelled edges; the latter, see (3), afford an advantage in dovetailing and in bevelled work where a square chisel edge could not be entered in the corner. (4) shows another kind of handle, made chiefly in boxwood. Fig. 10 (1) illustrates a Firmer Gouge, made from 1/4- 1 1/2 in. in width and of varying curvature. Firmer gouges are always ground and sharpened on the outside face, distinguishing them from scribing gouges-which are sharpened upon the inside-thus enabling a cut to be made square with the face of an object or moulding. Firmer gouges are especially useful for recessing work-such as the concave shape in a pen tray, etc. Carving gouges are made of hard-tempered steel, much thinner in section, with the bevel hardly perceptible, and are made in various shapes.

Chisels And Gouges 137

(I)

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(2)

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(3)

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(4)

Fig. 9.-Various types of chisels and handles.

Mortise Chisels are illustrated in Fig. 10 (2); sizes range upwards from 1/8 in. in sixteenths. Their use is restricted to mortising, i.e. the act of preparing the receptacle or cavity to receive a tenon or mortise lock.

Boring Tools

Fig. 10 (7) illustrates a Brace with a ratchet attachment which permits the use of this tool in a corner, where an ordinary brace could not be used. The best types are made with ball-bearing head (see diagram adjoining) and mounted with cocos or ebony wood.

Dowel or Twist Bits are illustrated in (4); sizes range from 1/16-1 in. in diameter. They are used for deep boring where a centre bit would"driftif bored to any depth.

The Spoon Bit (3) is used for boring wood to receive screws and effect a clean hole, reducing the possibility of splitting to a minimum.

Fig. io. Woodworking tools.

Fig. io.-Woodworking tools.

Description of Fig. 10 {continued).

Centre Bits, (5), are used chiefly for comparatively shallow boring, and the larger sizes are of special utility, as for example, when boring out the core of an oilstone case is necessary.

(6) Is A Rose-Head Countersink

Used to shape the heads of holes to receive screws. This type bores much cleaner than the Snail-head Countersink, which is a quick cutter and useful for large work.