Handcraft or manual training should-as has been previously indicated-not be restricted to mere hand training or dexterity, but should aim in the widest sense at a general understanding and appreciation of handwork, in fine pieces of craft-work and buildings. Whilst many pupils of handcraft classes must inevitably enter trades, it does not necessarily follow that the instruction should be in any sense vocational. The authors favour traditional methods because of their proved value and of their educational possibilities, but in the early years of handcraft training, the training is necessarily educational and cultural. The writers think it will be granted that those pupils who are later to enter the various artistic and mechanical trades, and who take up a regular course of technical work would, after a good handcraft course, be sure to profit by the more advanced training, and would also be able to proceed directly to technical courses.
The United Kingdom teems with fine entrances and doorways belonging to bygone period-:, churches, cathedrals, castles, public buildings, colleges, and town and country houses presenting many splendid features. Fig. 1 illustrates a typical London example attributed to the brothers R. and J. Adam, who during their time designed many of this type."Adamdoorways are always classic in character, and may be recognized by their proportion and decoration. With reference to the general character of the doorway under review, it should be noted that the Adam brothers frequently designed these with a "portico"as illustrated. Portico is an interesting architectural term derived from the Latin wordport, a(a gate), and this root can also be traced in other interesting terms such as porch, portiere, and portcullis. Portico means, literally, a range of columns or colonnade in front of a building. The entrance is set back from the columns as in the case of the West Front of St. Paul's Cathedral, and the Royal Exchange, London. The front of the portico is characterized by two fluted columns, classic in character but not copies of any of the columns belonging to the classic orders. The column itself would provide ample material for one object lesson, if an instructor treated this from earliest times and dealt briefly with the general growth and development to the time of the famous Greek buildings. The German archaeologists, Von Reber and Winkelstein, in their various works deal at great length with early columns. Von Reber gives an interesting account of the primitive square pier in the rock-hewn chambers along the Nile. These were carved from solid rock, and the necessary support for the roof or ceiling was provided by leaving a square pier at intervals. To facilitate moving about these chambers, he considers that the corners were chamfered away, thus forming an eight-sided or octagonal column. The second stage appears to have been similar to an irregular octagon in sectional plan, and the third indicated above was an improvement on the octagon, for all the sides were equal in size or regular. A desire to improve upon this type is believed to have led to the sixteen-sided column by the simple process of doubling. The last development would naturally lead to a column almost circular in sectional plan, for Von Reber thinks that the Egyptians rejected the sleek rotundity of a circular column, in favour of one displaying greater preponderance of vertical line, which suggests greater strength and rigidity. A desire for ornament appears to have suggested channelling each side, and this would also accentuate the vertical line effect. Some authorities consider that the last stage represents the " proto-Greek " form which was later to develop into the columns of the Ionic, Corinthian, Doric, Tuscan, and Composite orders. The parts of a column are variously named shaft, neck, capping, base, frieze moulding, flutes, fillets, scrolls. The terms " entasis " and " module " are also introduced. If the column with corresponding parts of the order are dealt with, then the following terms would also be dealt with, viz. cornice or entablature, cornice moulding, frieze, frieze moulding, modillion, guttae, dentil, pedestal, base, surbase, plinth, and abacus. It would be difficult to find a building which did not have parts corresponding to those mentioned above, and as each term has a distinct and separate evolutionary interest, and many are derived from the same roots as more commonplace words, it will be seen that a unique opportunity is afforded for linking up learning or culture with real things. Above the columns of the portico is the cornice, adaptations of which are seen in commonplace things in every home. Thus the " frieze " of the cornice applies also to the cornice of a wardrobe or bookcase, whilst the moulding of the portico cornice has its parallels in a plaster ceiling cornice, sideboard, cupboard, etc. It could be pointed out in another lesson that all mouldings are made up of various elements found in the classic orders of architecture, such as " cyma recta " or right ogee, "cyma reversa" or reversed ogee, " corona " or drip, "trochilus" or scotia, "cavetto" or hollow, "ovolo" and fillet, "astragal" or bead, " fillet" or square, "torus" and "facia". Some of these elements occur in the cornice illustrated, whilst the frieze part introduces such terms as "swag," "husk," and "patera ". To further illustrate the application of architectural terms to domestic features, one has only to quote "skirting," the moulded board round a room, or " plinth," a moulded base to a piece of furniture, the " architrave " of a door, and the frieze or picture-rail of a room. Ordinary room doors have "stiles," "muntings,"
Fig. 1.-Portico and railings at Chandos House, Queen Anne Street, London.
By R. and J. Adam.
rails, and panels; Gothic windows have tracery, quatrefoils, trefoils, cinquefoils, lancet shapes, etc. An analysis of the terms is valuable, as indicating a common root origin with other common terms or words. It will be seen upon reference to the photograph that the back of the portico has two supporting "pilasters". The parts of these are named very similarly to the parts of the column, and the connexion between "pilaster"and the Latin word"plla,"a column, pillar, and pilon, should be noted. The door itself in Fig. 1 gives another fine opportunity for the discussion and comparison of terms, and the fanlight above the door is a feature of the period. Whilst upon the subject of doorways, mention should be made of others than the one directly dealt with, such as those with semicircular arched tops, a feature of Roman construction, and usually made with tiles. Norman doorways in churches and monastic buildings are also semicircular, and massively built of stone with carved decoration. Gothic doorways usually have the pointed arch as a distinguishing feature, whilst those built during Tudor times have a characteristic Tudor arch, like a flat lancet shape. Below are given a few notes and suggestions in connexion with object lessons based upon the foregoing matter.
Object Lessons on Doorway.
It is suggested that the class has visited a doorway, similar to the example shown, or has a large charcoal drawing of one displayed upon the wall. Apparatus.
(a) Large charcoal sketch of doorway about 4 feet to 5 feet high. (b) Blackboard, etc., for sketches, diagrams, and notes. (c) Plaster cast of a typical piece of ornament (such as for example part of the frieze shown in photograph). First Lesson.
1. The teacher to deal with the earliest known doorways, giving as an example a simple hole with stone or block rolled in position for security.
2. Evidences of ancient doorways and gates, as shown by Biblical and classical quotations.
3. Examples of ancient doorways, photographs or diagrams of ancient Egyptian remains, and museum specimens.
4. Identity of doorways. Teacher to deal with historical examples. Second Lesson.