Fig. 40. Parts of a Standard Plane.
3. Plane-iron Screw.
7. "Y" Adjustment.
8. Adjusting Nut.
9. Lateral Adjustment.
10. Frog Screw.
13. Handle Bolt and Nut.
14. Knob Bolt and Nut.
15. Handle Screw.
16. Bottom, Bed or Sole.
Fig. 40 names and locates the various parts of a modern plane.
Fig. 41 shows in detail the two irons of the plane, the plane-iron or plane-blade or bit and the cap-iron. The cap-iron acts as a shaving breaker. Were the grain of the wood the least unfavorable and such a shaving breaker not used, the plane-iron would cause the wood to split and break as shown in Fig. 41, lower figure.
The sectional view, Fig. 40, shows the relative positions of plane-iron and cap-iron. The cutting edge of the plane-iron should extend about 1/16 in. below that of the cap-iron for ordinary work. For fine work this distance may be lessened. Before the irons are placed in the plane the plane-iron screw must be made fast by means of a screwdriver or the plane cap. After the irons are fastened together properly, they may be placed in the throat of the plane, plane-iron down and cap-iron up. Make certain the plane-iron rests flat upon the frog, with the Y-adjustment inserted in the slot made for it in the cap-iron. The cap may next be placed and its cam pushed down. Should it be impossible to force the cam into place without great pressure, first look to see that the plane-iron rests flat upon the frog with the Y-lever in its slot in the cap-iron. With beginners, this is the most frequent cause of a tight acting cam. Sometimes, however, a loose acting cap-screw will be the cause of either a tight or a loose acting cam. Once a cap-screw is adjusted, it seldom needs attention unless loose fitting. The cam should cause the cap to press no tighter against the irons than is necessary to prevent their moving from side to side in the throat of the plane when tested with the fingers.
Fig. 41. Action With and Without Shaving Breaker.
In adjusting a plane-iron for depth of cut, hold the plane as in Fig. 42, looking toward the light. Sight along the plane bottom, at the same time turning the brass adjusting nut until the cutting edge projects very slightly, not much more than the thickness of a piece of drawing paper. A shallow set plane-iron resulting in "tissue paper" shavings will enable one to secure good results quicker than any other kind of a setting. Where the wood is rough sawed, a carpenter, it is true, will set the iron slightly deeper, but he invariably sets it shallower as soon as he has removed this surplus stock. A second adjustment consists in moving the lateral adjusting lever, while sighting along the bottom of the plane toward the light, until the cutting edge of the iron shall project evenly.
Fig. 42. Sighting a Plane-iron.