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Woodwork For Beginners | by Ira Samuel Griffith



This book has been written in the hope that it may be of service in those grammar schools where a more extended treatment of subject-matter, such as that contained in the author's Essentials of Woodworking, is not possible of utilization to an extent sufficient to warrant its adoption as an individual text. The average time presupposed for the accomplishment of the subject-matter contained herein, with its efficient application in the form of projects or models, is from one to three hours a week for a period of two years, or its equivalent. One-third of this time may well be devoted to correlated mechanical drawing.

TitleWoodwork For Beginners
AuthorIra Samuel Griffith
PublisherThe Manual Arts Press
Year1919
Copyright1916, Ira Samuel Griffith
AmazonWoodwork For Beginners

By Ira Samuel Griffith

Professor of Industrial Education University of Illinois

-Preface
This book has been written in the hope that it may be of service in those grammar schools where a more extended treatment of subject-matter, such as that contained in the author's Essentials of Woodwo...
-Chapter I. Lumber Terms; Working Drawings; Estimating Stock. 1. Lumber Terms
Every boy who has had to cut kindling knows that wood will split when struck along the general direction of its growth. The fibers separate easily, Fig. 1. Grain is a term used to designate the di...
-2. Working Drawings
Drawings are, in general, of two kinds, pictorial and working. A pictorial drawing represents an object as it appears, while a working drawing represents the object as it really is, Fig. 4. The latter...
-3. Stock Bill
A good workman will prepare from his working drawing a stock bill. Fig. 10 is an example of a form used by one large company. .Teacher and pupil are referred to Projects for Beginning Woodwork and Mec...
-Chapter II. Laying-Out Tools; Their Uses. 4. The Rule
There are various styles of rules. Whatever the style the unit of measurement is the foot with its subdivisions into halves, quarters, eighths, and in some instances sixteenths. Fig. 11. Fig. ...
-5. Pencil And Knife
A knife is used to lay out work that must be quite accurate, such as joints. Where accuracy is not so important a pencil may be used. Pencil lines should be made with a well sharpened lead, however. A...
-6. The Try-Square
The try-square, Fig. 14, is used for three purposes in general, first, to act as a guide in laying out lines across the grain of a piece of stock, Fig. 15; second, to test the edges, Fig. 16, or ends,...
-7. The Framing Square
The framing square, Fig. 20, will be found useful about a shop where the try-square is too small. It is of very great value to the carpenter in the framing of houses and barns, etc. Fig. 20....
-8. The Bevel
The bevel, Fig. 21, is nothing more than a try-square with a movable blade and a thumb-screw which will hold the blade at any desired angle with reference to the beam. Fig. 21. Bevel. ...
-9. The Marking Gage
The marking gage, Fig. 22, is used for laying out accurate lines along the grain of the wood. The spur, or marking point, is to be sharpened like a knife point by means of a file, the cutting edge ...
-10. The Dividers
A good pencil compass will be found better for elementary woodwork than the dividers, Fig. 24, because they do not scratch the wood. Carpenters, however, find much use for dividers. Some dividers are ...
-Chapter III. Saws; Their Uses. 11. Hand Or Crosscut-Saw, And Rip-Saw
Saws, as determined by their teeth, are of two general classes -crosscut and rip. The former class are used for cutting across the grain, the latter for separating the fibers along the grain. ...
-13. The Back-Saw
The back-saw, Fig. 31, is used for both ripping and crosscutting upon fine work. The blade is made quite thin and is reinforced by means of a back piece. Fig. 31. Back-saw. The handsaw or c...
-Chapter IV. Planes; Their Adjustments; Face Side, Face Edge. 14. Planes
The planes shown in Figs. 36-39 are those most used in ordinary woodwork. Of these, the jack-plane alone will suffice for grammar grade work, its iron being ground straight across then whetted very sl...
-15. Adjustments Of A Standard Plane
Fig. 40. Parts of a Standard Plane. 1. Plane-iron. 2. Cap-iron. 3. Plane-iron Screw. 4. Cap. 5. Cap-screw. 6. Frog. 7. Y Adjustment. 8. Adjusting Nut. 9. Lateral Adju...
-16. Face Side, Face Edge
The first surface - a broad surface, should the piece not be square in section, and the first edge selected or prepared have a special use and are given distinguishing names. The first surface is know...
-Chapter V. Squaring-Up Stock. 17. Mill-Marks
Before the time of woodworking machines, such as we have to-day, it was customary to surface or plane the broad surfaces by hand, as will be described later in this chapter. To-day, woodworkers may go...
-18. Methods Of Squaring-Up Stock
For the sake of convenience we may classify the methods of squaring-up stock under the following heads; squaring-up mill-planed stock for (1) outside finish; (2) inside finish; (3) squaring up rough-s...
-19. Squaring-up Mill-Planed Stock
Fig. 46. Position in Edge Planing. First Method: Fig. 47. Starting the Stroke. (1) Select and mark one of the broad surfaces for a face side, Fig. 43. (2) Select and plane a face ed...
-20. Squaring-Up Mill-Planed Stock
Second Method: The only difference between the second method and the first method consists in the fact that the first broad surface, instead of simply having its face mark put on, must be planed smoot...
-21. Squaring-Up Rough Stock
Third Method of Squaring Stock: (1) True and smooth a broad surface for a face side, testing as in Figs. 56, 57, 58, 59. Put on the proper face mark, Fig. 43. Fig. 57. Second Test for Surfac...
-22. Planing A Chamfer
Very frequently the arrises of a board are removed; the result produced is known as a chamfer. Chamfers are laid out with a pencil rather than gage and try-square and knife. While the latter is more a...
-Chapter VI. Boring Tools; Their Uses. Chisels And Chiseling. 23. Brace Or Bitstock
The brace, Fig. 64, is used to hold various kinds of bits. A ratchet brace differs from the plain brace in that, by means of an adjustment, it can be made to turn in one direction or the other, as wel...
-24. The Auger Bit
The auger-bit, Fig. 68, is used for all ordinary work. The size of hole a bit will bore can be told by the number on its tang, which number is the numerator of a fraction whose denominator is 16 on au...
-25. The Drill Bit; Awls; The Gimlet Bit
The drill bit, Fig. 72, is tempered quite hard and may be used to bore in metal as well as in wood. As this bit has no spur, it is best to make a seat for it. In metal a punch is used; in wood an aw...
-26. Countersink Bit; Screwdriver Bit
Fig. 75. Countersink Bit. Fig. 76. Screwdriver Bit. The countersink bit, Fig. 75, is used to enlarge the holes bored for the bodies or cores of flat-head screws, that the heads may be ...
-27. Chisels
The two kinds of chisels most commonly used are the firmer chisel, Fig. 77, and the framing chisel, Fig. 78. The firmer chisel is lighter than the framing chisel and is used for fine work. The framing...
-28. Chiseling
In paring across the grain horizontally, place the piece of wood in a vise so that both hands may be free to manipulate the chisel, Fig. 80. With the bevel side of the chisel up, pare almost all the w...
-29. The Gouge
The gouge, Fig. 82, which is a chisel of curved section, may have its bevel on either the inside or outside of the curved blade. Figs. 83 and 84 illustrate the manner of holding an outside beveled gou...
-30. Whetting Chisels And Plane Irons
When edged tools become dulled through repeated whettings, or through being brought into contact with metal, they must be ground, Fig. 85. Grinding is a rather difficult task for beginners to learn to...
-Chapter VII. Additional Tools And Appliances; Their Uses. 31. Sandpaper
Sandpaper should be used only after the edged tools have completely finished their work. Sandpaper is intended merely as a means of smoothing a surface, and any attempt to make it do the work of an ed...
-32. Hammer; Nailset
The hammer most commonly used by woodworkers is what is known as a bell-faced claw hammer, Fig. 95. The face of this hammer is slightly rounded that it may be used in setting nails upon outside work w...
-33. Nails; Nailing
Nails used by woodworkers differ in shape or style according to their peculiar use. The most common type is the wire nail, Fig. 98. The cut nail, Fig. 99, is often used for fastening shingles as it do...
-34. The Screwdriver; Screws; Fastening with Screws
In Fig. 103 is shown a common type of screwdriver. The end if shaped as shown will be found less likely to jump out of the groove in the head of the screw, resulting in a marred surface on the wood....
-35. Glue; Clamps
Cabinet-makers use glue instead of nails for fastening parts together. Glue is made from the strippings of hide, from horns, hoofs, etc., of animals. These are boiled to a jelly-like consistency and c...
-36. The Spokeshave; Working Curved Edges
The spokeshave, Fig. 111, is practically a short plane, and like the plane should be adjusted so that it will remove thin shavings. It is used chiefly upon curved surface work and may be either pushe...
-Chapter VIII. Simple Joinery. 37. Joinery; General Directions
The term joinery as used herein refers merely to the fitting together of two or more parts called the members. Take into consideration the direction of the grain in planning the relative positions of ...
-38. Directions For Making A Dado
Fig. 118. Testing Dado for Depth. A dado, Fig. 118, is made by cutting a rectangular groove entirely across one member into which the end of another member fits. Dadoes are cut across the grai...
-39. Cross-Lap Joint
Usually, stock for the two members of the cross-lap joint can be best planed to width and thickness in one piece. Place two sets of face marks on the piece, so that there shall be one set of marks on ...
-Chapter IX. Wood Finishing. 41. Materials For Wood Finishing
Finishes are applied to woods for two reasons, first, that the wood may be protected and, second, that its appearance maybe bettered. Of the materials used the following are the chief ones: Stain, ...
-42. General Directions For Using Brush
(1) Hold the brush as in Fig. 124. (2) Dip the end of the brush in the liquid to about one-third the length of the bristles. (3) Wipe off the surplus liquid on the edge of the can wiping both sides of...
-43. Simple Finishes For Close-Grained Woods
It is taken for granted that commercially prepared finishes are to be used; it is hardly profitable for boys to try to prepare their own stains and other finishes. First Finish: (1) Remove all du...
-44. Simple Finishes For Coarse-Grained Woods
The finishing of coarse-grained woods differs from that of finishing close-grained woods chiefly in the means taken to build up the open grain of the coarse-grained woods to the same level as that o...
-45. Painting
The purpose of paints is to preserve the wood by covering it with an opaque material. Paints are usually composed of white lead and zinc oxide and coloring materials mixed or thinned with raw or boile...







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