Every boy who has had to cut kindling knows that wood will split when struck along the general direction of its growth. The fibers separate easily, Fig. 1. " Grain " is a term used to designate the direction of the fibers;" along the grain" means in the general direction of growth.

"Length" in woodwork has reference to that direction in which the wood splits easiest; that is, along the grain. A board might therefore, be wider than it is long. Fig. 2 will make clear the meanings of other terms commonly used.

Fig. 1. Splits Easiest Along the Grain

Fig. 1. Splits Easiest Along the Grain.

Fig. 2. Common Terms Illustrated

Fig. 2. Common Terms Illustrated.

Fig. 3. Direction of Surface Grain

Fig. 3. Direction of Surface Grain.

In planing, a surface will- sometimes be roughened instead of smoothed; this is called working "against the grain." Fig. 3 shows the reason for the roughening; the remedy consists in changing the direction of the planing, or of the board.

Perspective

Perspective.

Working Drawing

Working Drawing.

Fig. 4. Pictorial vs. Working Drawing of Block.

Fig. 5. Working Drawing of Wood Spool

Fig. 5. Working Drawing of Wood Spool.