Every boy who has had to cut kindling knows that wood will split when struck along the general direction of its growth. The fibers separate easily, Fig. 1. " Grain " is a term used to designate the direction of the fibers;" along the grain" means in the general direction of growth.
"Length" in woodwork has reference to that direction in which the wood splits easiest; that is, along the grain. A board might therefore, be wider than it is long. Fig. 2 will make clear the meanings of other terms commonly used.
Fig. 1. Splits Easiest Along the Grain.
Fig. 2. Common Terms Illustrated.
Fig. 3. Direction of Surface Grain.
In planing, a surface will- sometimes be roughened instead of smoothed; this is called working "against the grain." Fig. 3 shows the reason for the roughening; the remedy consists in changing the direction of the planing, or of the board.
Fig. 4. Pictorial vs. Working Drawing of Block.
Fig. 5. Working Drawing of Wood Spool.