The finishing of coarse-grained woods differs from that of finishing close-grained woods chiefly in the means taken to "build up" the open grain of the coarse-grained woods to the same level as that of its close grain. This is accomplished by means of filler. Paste filler is usually made of ground rock crystal mixed with linseed oil, Japan drier, and turpentine. It may be either light or natural in color, or colored in any one of a number of shades.
First Finish: (1) Thin the filler with turpentine until it makes a thin paste. (2) With a stiff-bristled brush, force the filler into the pores of the wood and leave the surface covered with a thin coating. (3) Allow this to stand until the filler has "flatted," that is, until the "gloss" has disappeared and the filler becomes dull and chalkish. The time required for this to take place varies. Twenty minutes is not unusual. (4) Rub the filler off just as soon as it has flatted - do not let it stand longer, for the longer it stands the harder it is to remove. Rub across the grain as much as is possible, using a wad of excelsior. Finish fine work by going over it a second time with a cloth, rubbing with the grain as well as across, that the "high lights" may be clear of filler.
On fine work use a felt pad to rub the filler into the pores, and rub off with a cloth only.
Twenty-four hours should be allowed the filler to harden. One filling is sufficient for ordinary work; on fine work the above process is sometimes repeated after the first filling has hardened.
The striking contrasts in the grain of wood such as oak and chestnut, obtained by the use of colored fillers are due to the dark fillers remaining in the open grain but being wiped off of the close grain - the "high lights." (5) Apply a thin coat of shellac and allow it to dry over night. (6) Sand lightly with No. 00 paper held upon the finger tips. (7) Apply one or two coats of wax.
Second Method: The second method is similar to the one just described except that before the filler is applied a coat of stain of a color desired for the "high lights", the close-grained spots, will be applied and allowed to dry-over night. If water stain is used this will be sanded with No. 00 paper before the filler is applied. Next, the filler coat will be applied, a color of filler being used which is relatively darker but of the same shade as that of the stain being used. After this a thin coat of shellac is applied and the remaining steps taken as in the first method.