"When the shafts are all roughed off and finished, the foreman will find to his great astonishment that by actual time the lathe has produced over 25 to 40 per cent more work than ever before. I allude to the lathe using most all ordinary tool steels.

"At this point it is up to the superintendent to see just where he is at, and he finds in looking around his shop that there is hardly a machine that he can't speed up, but he also finds that the speeds on the countershafts are all too slow. This means that he has either got to increase his speed by increasing the main line, or buy new pulleys to increase his countershafts.

"In most instances it is advisable to increase the speed of the countershaft, but by doing this he generally finds that the countershaft will not stand the speed. If the machines are not too badly worn out, and he is satisfied that he can get at least 25 per cent more work out of the tool by increasing the counter speed, by all means let him get a new countershaft and treat each machine this way.

"No doubt the reader will know the results that some of us have arrived at in the last two years. In regard to cutting speeds and feeds there has been and always will be difference of opinion, and it is almost impossible to determine the right feeds and speeds, whether it is for steel or cast iron, and for the operations of turning, planing, or milling; the work varies so in different shops, that is, regarding the construction of different pieces, the amount of metal there is to remove from each piece, and how accurately the work has to be done.

"There is no doubt in my mind that the makers of high-speed steel have awakened the management of different shops, and it is surprising the amount of work which can be accomplished even with the old machines, with very little redesigning. There is no question but that the machine shops which do very heavy work have not the necessary power for the use of high-speed steels, as the power should be used if the machines are old ones.

"Referring again to the question of grinding, I wish to state that this is a very important factor in the use of high-speed steels. I have seen much damage done to the tools, in many instances making it necessary to treat them over, and, as we all know, this takes much time. My recommendation for grinding is to let one man grind all the tools, and be responsible for them. When a lathe hand or a machine hand wants his tool ground, he simply gives it to the man who is responsible, and gets another the same size and shape, these being always kept ground and ready for service. In this way the tools are kept uniform and ground alike.

"In reference to the amount of work that can be accomplished on different machine tools, the writer finds that the feeds have been altogether too fine on most makes of machines up to the time that they were redesigned for high-speed work. Now it has been demonstrated that high-speed steel has come to stay, and we all know that it works better on roughing work than it does on finishing. If most of the product of the machine department is to be turned, it has come to the point where the majority of work must be ground; and this is the only way to get good and accurate work, especially where the strains of the cut spring the work. Moreover, as it is not necessary to straighten the work to any great extent, it certainly means a great saving, as many of our readers know. The writer is not a builder of grinders, but merely speaks of the saving it has been on his own work.

"Below is a fair average of the speeds that most any good make of lathe, planer, drill press or radial ought to stand when using high-speed steel. Every lathe has a face-plate about the diameter of the swing or very near that. Take the peripheral speed of same by feet per minute; the use of a Warner cut-meter will give you the speeds instantly. This is one of the handiest little tools that can be obtained, and no machine shop is complete without it. The speed must be taken with the belt on the largest step of the cone, with the back gears in. The speed of the following sizes of lathes, taken from a large face-plate with the slowest speed, I find to work very well, and considerable saving has been effected even on old lathes. Of course the feeds will have to be determined by the amount of power available:

"14-inch

swing lathe;

slowest speed with back gears in,

100 feet.

16-inch

swing lathe;

slowest speed with back gears in,

90 feet.

18-inch

swing lathe;

slowest speed with back gears in,

85 feet.

20-inch

swing lathe;

slowest speed with back gears in,

75 feet.

24-inch

swing lathe;

slowest speed with back gears in,

65 feet.

30-inch

swing lathe;

slowest speed with back gears in,

60 feet.

36-inch

swing lathe;

slowest speed with back gears in,

50 feet.

42-inch

swing lathe;

slowest speed with back gears in,

30 feet.

"Larger lathes in proportion.

"High-speed twist drills, drilling cast iron, ought to drill the following, if we have the power and feeds:

" 1/2 inch

diameter,

speed 500 r.p.m.,

3 1/4 inches

deep in one minute.

5/8-inch

diameter,

speed 400 r.p.m.,

2 3/4 inches

deep in one minute.

3/4-inch

diameter,

speed 335 r.p.m.,

2 1/2 inches

deep in one minute.

7/8-inch

diameter,

speed 290 r.p.m.,

21/4 inches

deep in one minute.

1 -inch

diameter,

speed 250 r.p.m.,

2 1/4 inches

deep in one minute.

1 1/8-inch

diameter,

speed 220 r.p.m.,

2 1/8 inches

deep in one minute.

l 1/4-inch

diameter,

speed 200 r.p.m.,

2 inches

deep in one minute.

1 3/8-inch

diameter,

speed 185 r.p.m.,

17/8 inches

deep in one minute.

l 1/2-inch

diameter,

speed 175 r.p.m.,

1 3/4 inches

deep in one minute.

"Larger ones in proportion.

"These speeds are all based on a peripheral speed of 65 feet per minute. High-speed drills have done somewhat better than this, however, but taking into consideration the time of grinding, I find that this speed is a good average during a day's run."

Continuing the discussion of high-speed steel it may not be amiss to say that it is yet in its infancy, and as far as can now be judged it has a most brilliant future before it. It has its shortcoming as every comparatively new product has, but when we consider how long it took to develop "machinery steel" to its present condition, we must admit that high-speed steel has a record that its friends may be proud of.

One of its good friends, Mr. Walter Brown, has given us in the columns of "Machinery" some excellent ideas on this subject, in which he has taken much interest and of which he has made many valuable observations and suggestions. Among other good things be says:

"In spite of its shortcomings, however, it is very evidently the cutting-tool material of the future, both because of its superior qualities, all things considered, and of the likelihood that most of its present failings will be overcome as manufacturers get a better knowledge of its nature and behavior.

"The chief difficulty in the way of its use now is its exceeding brittleness. Many a user has become discouraged with the result of a few experiments and has, because of finding that it lacked the toughness of other steels, discarded its use entirely. More experience would, if intelligently obtained, have demonstrated without question the great value of this new product of the metallurgist's skill.