Ready-to-use fillers can be obtained in the open market; they save time.

Many materials are used as a base in the making of fillers, such as whiting, cornstarch, silex, flour, etc. The material which we believe to be the best is silex.

To make light fillers. To make the filler, take a quantity of silex and mix it with linseed oil into a stiff paste; then add a small quantity of Japan drier in the proportion of one tablespoonful to one quart of paste. Mix thoroughly, thin to the proper consistency with turpentine or benzine, and apply with a brush; let it "set" for a time, then rub off with excelsior or burlap, and finally rub with waste or a soft cloth. The filler should be left to dry for at least twenty-four hours before the first coat of shellac is applied.

To color filler. A golden oak stain and filler is made by adding to the above raw sienna and a little burnt umber. A dark filler is made by adding to the light filler burnt umber and drop black. A green filler is made by adding to the light filler chrome yellow and Prussian blue. Almost any shade or color can be had by using combinations of pigments with the light filler.