The extension of telephone lines to rural districts is one of the real blessings modern science and business enterprise have bestowed upon the farmers. Most of these spurs and cross-country lines are made at the expense of the telephone companies; but sometimes, when the number of subscribers does not warrant it. the prospective customers must furnish or erect their own poles. Even if these are done by the companies, many boys may desire to unite their neighbors' houses with theirs by private telephone or telegraph lines. Telegraphy is a fascinating study to boys. To those who contemplate the erection of a private telephone or telegraph line it may be informing for them to examine these designs of two ways of bracing poles. In fact, the plans are worthy of any farmer's attention who uses poles for any purpose whatsoever about the farm.

It is to be remarked, first of all, that poles get out of plumb and alinement because of wind pressure and wire strain. Eliminate these two stresses upon any pole, and unless it be located at the edge of quicksand, or abuts a living spring of water, it will very likely remain erect until it decays. Fig. 1 shows a form of bracing that is excellent to aid a pole to withstand the rocking effect of the wind. Most winds are unsteady in effort, and this accounts for so many poles leaning, for the pressure of the wind comes and goes suddenly, each gust being followed by periods of lull, so that a pole rocks, swinging out with the gust, and back with the following lull. The design is self-explanatory, and is intended for a full-sized pole, set seven feet in the ground. But poles to carry two to four wires need not be so large, either in diameter or in height, nor be set so deeply in the ground. The perpendicular braces. coupled at the top by horizontal timbers, are efficient to withstand the rocking effect of the pole. The oblique braces are also valuable assistants. Strange as it may appear, when oblique braces are used alone, they tend to lift a pole out of the earth as it rocks hack and forth. The horizontal braces do not have this tendency. Perhaps children have observed that their swing poles, when braced by oblique braces only, have gradually become loosened and lifted by swinging. This system of bracing poles, therefore, is to be recommended for children's swings, The design shows the parts well proportioned, and they may be proportionally reduced in dimensions in working them out.

How to brace a telephone pole

Fig. 232 - How to brace a telephone pole.

As indicated at 2 cement may be substituted for wooden braces at a bend of the line where the wind and wire strains are not too severe. The hole in the ground is dug obliquely, the pole is set upright, and the triangular spaces on both sides are filled with cement. Odd-shaped poles, should it he necessary, may he used anywhere when properly braced. One good way of bracing such a pole is portrayed in Fig. 3. A toe of cement may be extended into the ground to give the cement a "grip." If it is required to have a still stronger support, a wooden brace may be affixed as shown, its bottom resting on a large flat stone, with or without a cement binding.

By either of these methods, a private line of telephone or telegraph wires can be maintained against the blasts of Boreas himself, whether the old mythological god blows hot or cold, hard or easy.