Doctor X. was an old school and college friend of the subject and on taking his degree had specialized in surgery, while the subject had specialized in internal medicine. The subject had known Mrs. X. only since her marriage, and when he first met her, not only he but others had remarked on her Semitic appearance. Doctor and Mrs. X. had both planned to go to Europe that year, but on account of the outbreak of the European war, the trip would probably have to be postponed, although the subject had not heard definitely from them for some time, as he had left town for a summer holiday. The subject also, in the earlier part of the year, had thought of making a European trip, but had postponed it and had remained in America at the urgent request of his family.

Dining-room at the home of Doctor and Mrs. X.

The subject did not care much for the summer resort for the reason that while the food was abundant, he found the cooking rather tasteless. He had frequently, while there, expressed the wish to return to the city, and had often, partly in jest and partly in earnest, said that he would like to be in town before the supply of foreign foods, of which he was fond, had been exhausted. Doctor and Mrs. X. had often given delightful dinners at their home, and at these dinners many excellent dishes were served. Therefore, this portion of the dream becomes clear. It expresses the fulfillment of a desire to be in the city again with its excitement, rather than endure the dull routine of the country; and also the wish to have again a dinner at the home of Doctor X. in place of the tasteless food of the summer resort. Dining-room also symbolized intimacy, since less intimate friends would be received in a drawing-room.

Doctor. X. appeared changed. In place of a dark moustache, it seemed that he had grown a beard resembling the beard of the dreamer.

The subject in the dream had given Doctor X. one of his own physical characteristics, namely, a beard. He had often thought and impressed it upon Doctor X., and indeed the latter had himself remarked that he wished he had had a better training in internal medicine, as this would be of material help to him in surgical diagnosis. In the dream, one of the attributes of the internist, namely the beard, is given to Doctor X., the part in this, as in many dreams, standing for the whole. Thus the wish for his friend to have increased knowledge of internal medicine is fulfilled in this part of the dream. He is given part of the subject's mental equipment - in the guise of a physical characteristic.

He appeared rather thinner than usual.

Doctor X. had grown rather corpulent within the last few years, and had voluntarily, within the last year, materially reduced his weight through diet and exercise. The dreamer thought that this change was for the better, as he had often felt that his friend was too stout for his health.

His hair was silky and of a light tow color.

The day before the dream, the subject had visited a boy's camp situated in a high, mountainous district, and, as a physician, he was impressed with the splendid physical condition of all the boys there. He saw several boys with light, tow-colored hair, the same color as Doctor X.'s hair in the dream, the color of hair being that usually seen on dolls. Doctor X. had not been well of late; in fact, for a time he was rather nervous and sleepless. He thought that he could improve his health by reducing in weight and going to a gymnasium. In the dream he is given one of the attributes of a successful return to health, the physical attribute which characterized some of the healthy boys, namely, tow-colored hair. Again we see the fulfillment of a wish and the part of a dream standing for the whole.

The recent experiences of the day before, which have been woven into the dream, are termed dream instigators. Thus, although the instigator was at first sight of insignificant importance, it became a part of the dream, because the experience was one of psychical significance for the dream itself. In other words, the "tow-colored hair" was selected from a mass of recent experiences because it fitted exactly into the principal function of the dream, namely: its wish fulfillment that the doctor be in better physical condition. Thus the recent memories as well as older memories are treated the same way in the dream, because both served the wish-fulfilling purpose of the dream.

The putting of light hair on the head of a man whose hair is dark, and of a beard, when in reality no beard exists, is caused by two important dream mechanisms called displacement and condensation. These mechanisms have a definite purpose in unravelling the meaning of the dream. The displacement gives the individual the attribute of a wished-for physical strength (symbolized by the light hair) and of a better knowledge of internal medicine (symbolized by the beard). These two attributes are condensed in the one individual, the figure of the doctor. This condensation is produced in the dream by a fusion of traits belonging to two different individuals, thus making them more prominent and thereby reinforcing two divergent but friendly wishes. A certain similarity is therefore expressed in the underlying thoughts (termed the latent content) which gave rise to the dream, and these were fused for the purpose of reinforcement in the dream as related (called the manifest content). The ability to see the entrance of the dining-room, the closet, and the leather chair, all of which objects and situations do not exist in reality, are also instances of displacement for the purpose of expressing the wish, as will be shown later, of an intimate friendly relation: i.e. -the house is topsy-turvy, and yet they receive outsiders; who can these outsiders be but relatives or intimate friends? Thus "Dream displacement and dream conden-sation are the two craftsmen to whom we may chiefly attribute the moulding of the dream."