Mesmeric Methods. - The Fluidic Theory. - Influence of the Mind of the Operator. - The Early Mesmerists. - Their Methods and their Effects. - Decadence of the Higher Phenomena under Braid's Methods. - The Causes explained. - Telepathic Powers developed by Mesmerism. - Mesmerism as a Therapeutic Agent. - Method of Operation recommended. - How to acquire the Power. - The Necessary Conditions of Success. - Will Power explained. - The Fluidic Theory requires Revision. - Distinction between Mesmerism and Hypnotism sharply drawn. - Mesmeri-zation of Animals distinguished from the Hypnotization of Animals. - Methods employed in Each. - Tamers of Horses and Wild Beasts. - Dog-Trainers. - Primitive Man. - His Powers. - His Immunity from Harm. - Daniel. - The Adepts. - General Conclusions.

THAT the magnetic hypothesis of the mesmerists has many facts to sustain it cannot be denied. The experience of thousands goes to show that when passes are made over them, even at a distance of several feet, a sensation is felt akin to a gentle shock of electricity, which produces a remarkably soothing effect upon the nervous system, and eventually produces the mesmeric sleep. It is also known that when patients are mesmerized for therapeutic purposes, and passes are made over the affected part, the same soothing effect is produced, and pain is relieved. In fact, if we consider mesmerism solely as a therapeutic agent, and study it from that standpoint alone, the fluidic hypothesis is perhaps as good as any. But when we come to study mesmeric phenomena as a part, and only a very small part, of a grand system of psychologira1 science; when we ex amine it in its relations to other phenomena of a cognate character, - it is found that the fluidic theory should be received with some qualification.

The first thought which strikes the observer is that, admitting the fluidic theory to be substantially correct, the fluid is directed and controlled entirely by the mind of the operator. It is well known that passes effect little or nothing if the attention of the operator is distracted, from any cause whatever. The subject may be put to sleep, it is true, solely by the power of suggestion; but the peculiar effects of mesmerism, as distinguished from those of hypnotism, will be found wanting. The effects here alluded to consist mainly of the development of the higher phenomena, such as clairvoyance and telepathy.

It is well known that the early mesmerists constantly and habitually developed telepathic powers in their subjects. Causing their subjects to obey mental orders was a common platform experiment half a century ago. These experiments were often made, under test conditions, by the most careful and conscientious scientists, and the results are recorded in the many volumes on the subject written at the time. Many of these works were written by scientists whose methods of investigation were painstaking and accurate to the last degree. In the light of the developments of modern science, in the light of the demonstrations, by the members of the London Society for the Promotion of Psychical Research, of the existence of telepathic' power, we cannot read the works of the old mesmerists without having the conviction forced upon us that telepathy was developed by their experiments to a degree almost unknown at the present day. Why it is that the power to develop that phenomenon by mesmerists has been lost or has fallen into desuetude, is a question of the gravest scientific interest and importance.

The hostility and ridicule of the academicians undoubtedly had its effect on many minds, and caused many scientific investigators to shrink from publicly avowing their convictions or the results of their investigations. But that does not account for the fact that mesmerists, who believe in the verity of the phenomena, are rarely able to produce it at the present day.

The first question which presents itself is one of dates. When did the higher phenomena show the first signs of decadence ? A moment's reflection will fix it at or about the date of the promulgation of the theories of Dr. Braid. It is a historic fact, well known to all who have watched the progress of hypnotic science, that as soon as it was found that the mesmeric or hypnotic sleep could be induced by causing the subject to gaze upon a bright object held before his eyes, all other methods were practically abandoned. It was much easier to hold an object before the subject's eyes for a few minutes, with the mind at rest, than to make passes over him for an indefinite length of time, accompanying the passes by fixity of gaze and intense concentration of mind. The important point to bear in mind right here is the fact that in the old mesmeric method, fixity of gaze and concentration of will on the part of the operator, were considered indispensable to success. It seems clear, then, that it is to this change of methods that we must look for an explanation of the change in results. That being conceded, we must inquire how the conditions were changed by the change of methods.

What effects, if any, either in the condition of the subject or of the operator, or in both, are missing when the new methods are applied?

It is now necessary to recall to mind the fact (1) that Braid demonstrated that suggestion is not a necessary factor in the induction of the hypnotic state; and (2) that steadily gazing upon an object will induce the condition in a more or less marked degree, whether the subject is expecting the result or not. The intelligent student will so readily recall thousands of facts demonstrating this proposition that it is safe to set it down as an axiom in hypnotic science that intense gazing upon an object, accompanied by concentration of mind, will displace the threshold of consciousness to a greater or less extent, depending upon the mental characteristics of the individual and the circumstances surrounding him. The subjective powers are thus brought into play. The subjective mind is released, or elevated above the threshold of consciousness, and performs its functions independently of, or synchronously with, the objective mind, just in proportion to the degree of hypnosis induced. It may be only in a slight degree, it may be imperceptible to those surrounding him, or it may reach a state of complete hypnosis, as in the cases mentioned by Braid; but certain it is that the subjective powers will be evoked in exact proportion to the degree of causation.