A surrender159 will terminate an estate for years,160 but only when made to the holder of the next estate. Therefore an under(n. Y.) 530; Gomber v. Hackett, 6 Wis. 323; Newman v. Rutter, 8 Watts (Pa.) 51; Doe v. Rees, 4 Bing. N. C. 384; Doe v. Johnson, 1 Starkie, 411; Clark v. Greenfield (Com. Pl) 34 N. Y. Supp. 1; Koehler v. Brady, 78 Hun, 443, 29 N. Y. Supp. 388; Michel v. O'brien, 6 Misc. Rep. 408, 27 N. Y. Supp. 173; Brooks v. Rodgers, 99 Ala. 433, 12 South. 61. The landlord must have knowledge of the breach. Jackson v. Schutz, 18 Johns. (N. Y.) 174; People's Bank v. Mitchell, 73 N. Y. 40G; Garnhart v. Finney, 40 Mo. 449; Roe v. Harrison, 2 Term R. 425; Barber v. Stone (Mich.) 62 N. W. 139; Stover v. Hazelbaker. 42 Neb. 393, 60 N. W. 597; Bowling v. Crook, 104 Ala. 130, 16 South. 131. But see Miller v. Prescott, 163 Mass. 12, 39 N. E. 409.

154 Jackson v. Allen, 3 Cow. (N. Y.) 220; Hunter v. Osterhoudt, 11 Barb. (N. Y.) 33; Conger v. Duryee, 24 Hun (N. Y.) 617; Frazier v. Caruthers, 44 111. App. 61; Carraher v. Bell, 7 Wash. 81, 34 Pac. 469.

155 Lynch v. Gas Co., 165 Pa. St. 518, 30 Atl. 984; Nelson v. Eachel, 158 Pa. St. 372, 27 Atl. 1103; Frazier v. Caruthers, 44 111. App. 61; Deaton v. Taylor, 90 Va. 219, 17 S. E. 944; Little Rock Granite Co. v. Shall, 59 Ark. 405, 27 S. W. 562. But see Cleminger v. Gas Co., 159 Pa. St. 16, 28 Atl. 293; Williams v. Vanderbilt, 145 111. 238, 34 N. E. 476; Jones v. Durrer, 96 Cal. 95, 30 Pac. 1027; Moses v. Loomis, 156 111. 392, 40 N. E. 952; Doe v. Meux, 4 Barn. & C. 606; Balfour v. Russell, 167 Pa. St. 287, 31 Atl. 570. A notice to quit at the end of a certain time, given after the breach, may constitute a waiver. Doe v. Miller, 2 Car. & P. 348; Doe v. Allen, 3 Taunt. 78.

156 Roberts v. Jackson, 1 Wend. (N. Y.) 478; Carroll v. Ballance, 26 111. 19; Memahan v. Jacoway (Ala.) 17 South. 39. Merger will also destroy covenants incident to the reversion. Webb v. Russel, 3 Term R. 393; Thorn v. Woollcombe, 3 Barn. & Adol. 586.

157 Even though the term be longer than the life estate can possibly last. 1 Washb. Ileal Prop. (5th Ed.) 586.

158 4 Kent, Comm. (12th Ed.) 99. The second term need not be as long as the term to be merged. Stephens v. Bridges, 6 Madd. 66.

159 For a definition of a surrender, and the requisites for, see post, P408.

160 Conway v. Carpenter, 8O Hun, 428, 30 N. Y. Supp. 315; Hooks v. Forst, 165 Pa. St. 238, .".0 All. 846; Wolf v. Guffey, 161 Pa. St. 276, 28 Atl. 1117; Barn-hart v. Lockwood, 152 Pa. St. 82, 25 Atl. 237; May v. Oil Co., 152 Pa. St. 518, lessee cannot surrender to the original lessor.161 The making of a new lease may operate as a surrender of the old one.162