Modern utilization of high-class residence block. Note increased area covered. (Shaded surfaces represent houses.) city is generally preferable. Such a system need not necessarily lead to small holdings in the residence sections, although it has a tendency in that direction.

The average depth utilized by shops varies from 30 or 40 feet for cheap shops up to 70 or 80 feet for high class shops, with some department stores 200 to 400 feet deep. The average shop was formerly limited in depth by the necessity of obtaining light from each end, but this limitation has been removed by the use of artificial light in the day time. Allowing 30 or 40 feet in the rear for light and air, we have a normal depth of 100 to 120 feet for a lot, or a total depth, including an alley, of 200 to 250 feet to the block. Very long blocks are much less disadvantageous than very deep ones, the unfavorable feature here being that shops in the middle of the long fronts are difficult of access, as with the side streets in New York from Fourteenth Street up.

Office buildings can utilize a greater depth than shops, extending from 100 to 150 feet, and as to wholesale and warehouse buildings, light and air being almost unnecessary, the only limitation of depth is that of convenience in handling goods.

Residences erected in blocks are usually two or three rooms deep, covering 50 to 70 feet, so that with an allowance for light and air, 100 to 120 feet is also a desirable depth for residence lots. Where residence land is most valuable it is economized in the same way as with office buildings, the entire area being built on except for such light wells as are necessary or required by the building laws. In some of the best residence sections of smaller cities, lots of extra depth are found, permitting the dwellings to be set far back from the street, as with Euclid Avenue. Cleveland, where the lots on one side of the street are 900 feet deep, and Meridian Avenue in Indianapolis, where the lots on one side of the street are 400 feet deep. In the outskirts of small cities where land is cheap and but a small proportion of the land is built upon, great depth is customarily made use of for gardens, the deep lots being cut by additional streets as further demand for building land arises.

Planned as interior street, in effect an alley through the most valuable block in Salt Lake City. Frontage practically worthless.

Planned as interior street, in effect an alley through the most valuable block in Salt Lake City. Frontage practically worthless.

As to width of lots, these vary in the smaller cities from 20 to 25 feet for mechanics' homes, 40 to 60 feet for medium class residences or small shops, and 100 to 150 feet for high-class residences or the largest business buildings. In the largest cities residence lots run from 12 to 25 feet and business lots from 25 to 50 feet, with larger plots of 100 feet frontage or more used for large office buildings, shops, hotels, theatres or costly residences, the general rule being the larger the city the smaller the average holding of land.

Example of too wide street. Street narrowed from 100 feet to 56 feet. Sidewalks moved to edges of driveway. Expense of maintaining driveway reduced one half and desirable parking effects obtained. Macon, Ga.

Example of too wide street. Street narrowed from 100 feet to 56 feet. Sidewalks moved to edges of driveway. Expense of maintaining driveway reduced one-half and desirable parking effects obtained. Macon, Ga.

A marked effect of the subdivision of land into small lots occurs in the largest cities, when large plots are needed, such plots having greatly increased value, technically known as "plottage" value. From one standpoint this represents the "hold-up" cost of securing the last few lots of a plot, the plans concerning which almost invariably leaking out and advantage being taken of purchasers' necessities.