St. Paul in 18(58. City started at deep water and high bank, making good steamboat landing. Climbed hill to Seven Corners, then grew east on lower level towards railroad station.

St. Paul in 18(58. City started at deep water and high bank, making good steamboat landing. Climbed hill to "Seven Corners," then grew east on lower level towards railroad station.

Water front of Seattle, 1878. No commerce demanded docks, so water front was bulkheaded. Two new streets have since been laid out over the water, and continuous docks built.

Water front of Seattle, 1878. No commerce demanded docks, so water front was bulkheaded. Two new streets have since been laid out over the water, and continuous docks built.

To summarize the effect of public buildings, if located at or near the old business centre, they tend to maintain central strength in their first location, as in Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Chicago. This is the normal case. The first exceptions would be where public buildings are located at a moderate distance from the centre where the tendency is to draw business in their direction, and the second where they have been so misplaced as to fail to have any influence.

Macon, Ga. The point of origin, where bridge crossed from East Macon, which was fix settled. This frontage formerly the highest priced in the city, now worth about $10 front foot.

Macon, Ga. The point of origin, where bridge crossed from East Macon, which was fix settled. This frontage formerly the highest priced in the city, now worth about $10 front foot.

Paris. Central growth exhibited by successive encircling boulevards, formerly fortiflcation

Paris. Central growth exhibited by successive encircling boulevards, formerly fortiflcation.

Brooklyn. Illustrates growth along the axis of the Long Island R. R.

Brooklyn. Illustrates growth along the axis of the Long Island R. R.

Boston. Illustrates central growth at points on railroad axis, issuing from the city.

Boston. Illustrates central growth at points on railroad axis, issuing from the city.

Arising later in the life of a city, but in time acquiring more central influence than any other factor, are the Exchanges, such as the Stock Exchange, Produce Exchange, Cotton Exchange, Coffee Exchange, Wool Exchange, etc. The New York Stock Exchange is the strongest single influence maintaining the financial section. The proposition considered some years ago of moving the Stock Exchange above Prince Street, and on another occasion to 14th Street, if accomplished would have removed all the Stock Exchange brokers and the majority of the Banks and Trust Companies, private bankers, Safe Deposit Companies and lawyers, with disastrous results on land values in the financial section. The leading Exchange varies in different cities according to the dominant form of business. The Board of Trade, handling the. grain business, is the leading Exchange of Chicago and Minneapolis; the Cotton Exchange of New Orleans, Savannah and Mobile; and the Mining Exchange of Denver and Colorado Springs.

Fine old Southern residence separated from its neighborhood by railroad cutting. Value of land and building destroyed. Montgomery, Ala.