Fine old Southern residence separated from its neighborhood by railroad cutting. Value of land and building destroyed. Montgomery, Ala.

Factories create sub-centres, most distinct when on the. outskirts of cities, by causing the erection of laborers' cottages near the factory, which in turn attract small shops and public and semi-public buildings. Where factories are erected within the built-up section of the city, their central effect mingles with that of other factors, but attracts tenements near at hand.

Charleroux, France. Illustrates first lines of buildings along roads, which form large irregular blocks, later subdivided.

Charleroux, France. Illustrates first lines of buildings along roads, which form large irregular blocks, later subdivided.

Vienna, 1873. Showing fortifications and surrounding ring (used as a park), which made the old business center, in effect, an island.

Vienna, 1873. Showing fortifications and surrounding ring (used as a park), which made the old business center, in effect, an island.

Vienna, 189S. Showing ring outside the old fortifications, platted into regular blocks. These now highly improved with municipal and public buildings, apartment houses, etc.

Vienna, 189S. Showing ring outside the old fortifications, platted into regular blocks. These now highly improved with municipal and public buildings, apartment houses, etc.

In all growth, central or axial, great or small, the vital feature is continuity, the universal tendency being to add on buildings one by one, of the same general character as those which preceded them. Lack of continuity from whatever cause explains many of the greatest disappointments in anticipated real estate movements, such as for example the failure of the west side in New York, when first developed, to attract fine residences. While growth in general is continuous, in detail it may hasten on, leaving vacant places behind, especially where rapid transit draws it, the stations of the elevated railroad on the. west side at 72d, 81st, 93d, 104th and 116th Streets being starting points In new territory from which growth took place in all directions.

Atlanta. Example of star shaped city. (See page 47.)

Atlanta. Example of star-shaped city. (See page 47.)