As city evolves, continual specialization in business and differentiation in social grades. - Classification of utilities and locations sought. - Distribution of business utilities, economic of residence values, social, Movement of point of highest value, Direction and rate.
The physical evolution of a large city from a small one results not only from increased population and added industries, but also from continual specialization in business and differentiation in social grades. The first step is the separation between business and dwellings, the original buildings used for business below and dwelling above being replaced by separate business and residence buildings. Later the social activities in educational, charitable and recreational lines, become organized and evidence themselves in schools, hospitals, theatres and clubs, increasing diversity of function resulting in increased diversity of structure. Analyzing city land according to its utilization, it may be divided into three main classes, that used for business, that for residences and that for public or semi-public buildings.
Business land may be subdivided into that used for distribution - retail or wholesale stores and railroads - that used for administration - banking and office property - and that used for production - manufacturing property.
Residence land may be subdivided into that occupied by a single tenant, ranging from the cottage to the palace, and that occupied by more than one tenant, ranging from tenements to apartments and hotels.
Land used for public or semi-public buildings includes that used by the Post Office, City Hall, County Court House, etc, and by all such institutions as asylums, hospitals, churches, libraries, museums, clubs, etc.
The locations sought by these utilities and the reasons therefor seem to be as follows: Retail stores either cluster at the business centre or follow out traffic streets. In retailing the buyer necessarily seeks the seller, but since in all forms of trade it is the seller who is anxious to promote business, the retailer facilitates his possible customers by placing his shop where the largest number of them would pass, even though his shop were not there. Here he utilizes his shop windows and signs to draw customers into his shop, the two elements of convenience of location and advertising advantage working hand in hand.
Wholesaling may be. divided into two main classes: First, wholesaling of objects of great weight or bulk but relatively-small value, which seeks locations near transportation lines or termini for economy of handling, the selling being done by traveling salesmen or by selling agencies located in the business centre; and second wholesaling of articles of small bulk but high value in the retail-whole sale way, that is, making up an order including a variety of objects for the trade only - which seeks locations near their chief customers, the retail stores. Here the ability to quickly supply a small order of mixed goods is sufficiently important to induce them to pay considerable rents.
Second Street, Seattle, in 1876, looking south. Lots which sold in 1860 for $10 now bring $120,000. None of the original buildings survive.
Railroads in striving for passenger traffic project their passenger terminals as far as possible towards the business centre of a city. Economy of handling freight locates the freight depots either near the docks for interchange of freight or near the heavy business houses.
In the largest cities a. separate section evolves devoted to office buildings, whose ground floors are utilized by banks, trust companies, insurance companies, etc, and whose offices are rented to brokers, lawyers, architects, etc, the location of such an administrative district being usually the result of slow growth around old institutions.