While the individual members of the public have rights of fishing in waters, the soil below which is the property of the state,84 except in those cases in which an exclusive right to fish there has been granted by the state legislature or other sovereign authority,85 they have, as a general rule, no

J. Law, 369; Pearsall v. Post, 20 Wend. (N. Y.) Ill; Post v. Pearsall, 22 Wend. (N. Y.) 425; Per-ley v. Langley, 7 N. H. 233; Nudd v. Hobbs, 17 N. H. 524; Smith v. Floyd, 18 Barb. (N. Y.) 522; Waters v. Lilley, 4 Pick. (Mass.) 145, 16 Am. Dec. 333; Turner v. Selectmen of Hebron, 61 Conn. 175, 14 L. R. A. 386, 22 Atl. 951.

81. Graham v. Walker, 78 Conn. 130, 61 Atl. 98, 2 L. R. A. (N. S.) 983, 112 Am. St. Rep. 93, 3 Ann. Cas. 641; Ackerman v. Shelp, 8 N. J. Law, 125; Harris v. Carson, 7 Leigh (Va.) 632; Delaplane v. Crenshaw, 15 Grat. (Va.) 457. See Gray, Perpetuities, Sec.Sec. 572-586, where the subject of this section is fully dealt with.

82. Sudd v. Hobbs, 17 S. H. 524; Knowles v. Dow, 22 N. H. 387.

83. See cases cited ante, notes 78-80.

84. Manchester v. Massachusetts, 139 U. S. 240; Barbaro v. Boyle, 119 Ark. 377, 178 S. W. 378; Sollers v. Sollers, 77 M. 148, 20 L. R. A. 94, 39 Am. St. Rep. 404, 26 Atl. 188; Inhabitants of West Roxbury v Stoddard, 7 Allen

(Mass.) 15S; Lincoln v. Davis. 53 Mich. 375, 51 Am. Rep. 116, 19 N. W. 103; Arnold v. Mundy. 6 N. J. Law, 1, 10 Am. Dec. 356; Hooker v. Cummings, 20 Johns. (N. Y.) 90, 11 Am. Dec. 249; Collins v. Benbury, 25 N. C. 277, 38 Am. Dec. 722; Bell v. Smith, 171 N. C. 116, 87 S. E. 987; Sloan v. Biemiller, 34 Ohio St. 492; Carson v. Blazer, 2 Binn. (Pa.) 475; Legoe v. Chicago Fishing Co., 24 Wash. 175, 64 Pac. 141.

85. See Sollers v. Sollers. 77 Md. 148, 39 Am. St. Rep. 404; such right in water which covers land belonging to a private undividual.86 There is an exception to this rule, however, in the case of the shore of tide waters, that is, the space between high and low water; and although this belongs to an individual, the public may take fish, including shellfish, thereon,87 provided they do so without trespassing on the latter's land above high-water mark,88 and do not undertake to attach fishing appliances to the shore.89