At common law, a written transfer of land was always sealed, but not signed. In England, the better opinion is that the requirement in the Statute of Frauds that the writing be signed does not apply to a sealed instrument.72 In this country, however, a state statute requiring a signed writing for the transfer of an interest in land has been construed as requiring the writing to be signed, although it be sealed.73 In the absence of a statutory requirement that the instrument be "subscribed" by the grantor, the signature may, it has been held, be in any part thereof.71

69. Booth v. Starr, 1 Conn. 244, 6 Am. Dec. 233, Redwine v. Brown, 10 Ga. 311; Thompson v. Richmond, 102 Me. 335, 66 Atl. 649; Wheeler v. Sohier, 3 Cush. (Mass.) 222; Simonds v. Diamond Match Co., 159 Mich. 241, 123 N. W. 1132; Allis v. Foley, 126 Minn. 14, 147 N. W. 670; Chase v. Weston, 12 N. H. 413; Withy v. Mumford, 5 Cow. (N. Y.) 137; Markland v. Crump, 18 N. C. 94, 27 Am. Dec. 230; Clement v. Bank of Rutland, 61 Vt. 298, 4 L. R. A. 425, 17 Atl. 717.

70. Abby v. Goodrich, 3 Day (Conn.) 433; Claycomb v. Mun-ger, 51 111. 373; Crooker v. Jewell, 29 Me. 527; Chase v. Weston, 12 N. H. 413.

71. See Claycomb v. Munger, 51 I11. 373; Susquehanna & Wyoming Valley Railroad & Coal Co. v. Quick, 61 Pa. St. 339; Field v. Snell, 4 Cush. (Mass.) 504. Contra, see Littlefield v. Getchell, 32 Me. 392.

72. Cherry v. Heming, 4 Exch. 631; Cooch v. Goodman, 2 Q. B. 580, 597; Aveline v. Whisson, 4 Man. & G. 801; 3 Preston, Abstracts, 61; Challis, Real Prop. (3rd ed.) 404. The statute in terms (29 Car. II. c. 3, Sec. 1) provides that all leases, estates, interests of freehold, terms of years, etc., "made or created by livery and seisin only, or by parol, and not put in writing, and signed by the parties so making or creating the same, or their agents thereunto lawfully authorized by writing, shall have the force and effect of leases or estates at will only."

The signing may be by mark, although the person so signing is able to write,75 or may be by the hand of another person in the grantor's presence.76 Even a signature by another, made out of the grantor's presence,77 is sufficient if adopted by the grantor, as when he subsequently acknowledges or delivers the instrument as his act and deed.

"When the conveyance purports to be by more than one grantor, but all the grantors do not sign, the signatures of those that do, followed by delivery by them,

73. Goodman v. Randall, 44 Conn. 321; Shillock v. Gilbert, 23 Minn. 386; Mutual Benefit Life Ins. Co. v. Brown, 30 N. J. Eq. 193; Isham v. Bennington Iron Co., 19 Vt. 230; Adams v. Med-sker, 25 W. Va. 127.

74. Mcconnell v. Brillhart, 17 111. 354, 65 Am. Dec. 661; Smith v. Howell, 11 N. J. Eq. 349; Devereux v. Mcmahon, 108 N. C. 134, 12 L. R. A. 205, 12 S. E. 902; Saunders v. Hackney, 10 Lea (Tenn.) 194; Newton v. Emerson, 66 Tex. 142.

75. Meazels v. Martin, 93 Ky. 50, 18 S. W. 1028; Devereux v. Mcmahon, 108 N. C. 134, 12 L. R. A. 205; Truman v. Lore's Lessee, 14 Ohio St. 144; Mackay v. Easton, 19 Wall. (U. S.) 619, 22 L. Ed. 211.

76. Lewis v. Watson, 98 Ala. 497, 22 L. R. A. 297, 39 Am. St. Rep. 82, 13 So. 570; Jansen v. Mccahill, 22 Cal. 563, 83 Am. Dec.

84; Middlesboro Waterworks v. Neal, 105 Ky. 586, 49 S. W. 428: Bird v. Deckerv64 Me. 550; Gardner v. Gardner, 5 Cush. (Mass.) 483, 52 Am. Dec. 740; Mcmurtry v. Brown, 6 Neb. 368; Mutual Benefit Life Ins. Co. v. Brown, 30 N. J. Eq. 193; Lee v. Parker, 171 N. C. 144, 88 S. E. 217; Hays v. Hays, 6 Pa. St. 368.

77. Mcclendon v. Equitable Mortgage Co., 122 Ala. 384. 122 So. 30; O'neal v. Judsonia State Bank, 111 Ark. 589. 164 S. W. 295; Chivington v. Colorado Springs Co., 9 Colo. 597; Ford v. Ford, 27 App. D. C. 401; Reinhart v. Miller, 22 Ga. 402, 68 Am. Dec. 506; Hailey First Nat. Bank v. Glenn, 10 Idaho, 224. 109 Am. St. Rep. 204; Kerr v. Russell. Nye v. Lowry, 82 Ind. 316; 69 111. 666, 18 Am. Rep. 634; Clough v. Clough, 73 Me. 487, 40 Am. Rep. 386; Bartlett v. Drake. 100 Mass. 174, 97 Am. Dec. 92; will be sufficient to divest their interest, 78 unless their delivery was conditional upon signature by the others.79