The services due to the lord by a tenant in knight service were more burdensome than in socage. They comprised all the services due in socage, except quit rent, namely, fealty, reliefs, aids, escheat, and forfeiture, and also -

Scutage. - Originally the tenant had to fight for the lord; but this service was soon commuted for a money payment called scutage (from Scutum, a shield).

(c) Rider v. Wood (1855), 24 L. J. Ch. 737 at p. 741. R.P. C

Homage. - Besides swearing fealty, the tenant had to do homage; that is kneel down before the lord and declare himself to be his man (homo).

Wardship. - If the tenant was an infant the lord was his guardian, and received the rents and profits during his infancy. He could not however be compelled to account to the infant for the rents and profits, and consequently these Were usually retained by the lord.

Marriage. - The lord had the right to select a suitable wife (or husband) for an infant tenant. He would derive profit from this, because fathers with daughters were willing to pay a premium to the lord in order to obtain a good match for their daughters. If the ward refused to marry the person selected, he forfeited to the lord "the value of the marriage," i.e. the amount of the premium which the lord would have obtained.

In socage, the lord had no right of wardship or -marriage, for the guardian of an infant tenant was the nearest relation who could not inherit, and he could not sell the marriage except for the ward's advantage.

Other forms of knight-service were -

Grand sergeanty, which consisted in doing some personal service of the value of 5, at least, to the king himself;

Petty sergeanty, doing some smaller personal service for the king or lord.

Tenure in knight service was abolished during the Commonwealth, and its abolition was confirmed by the Statute of Tenures in the first year of the restoration of Charles II. (12 Car. II. c. 24). Grand sergeanty was excepted from this statute, - and military tenure has therefore ceased to exist, except in a few cases of grand sergeanty.

III. Spiritual Service, or Frankalmoign. - This tenure still exists where lands are held by the church.

The number of such lands is limited, because the statutes of mortmain (as to which see p. 23) aimed at preventing grants of land to the church or other corporations, and it is only where such statutes were avoided, or where the lands were granted to the Church by leave of the Crown that spiritual tenure can exist at the present day, and where it does exist the rules are now practically the same as in socage. Hence "tenant in fee simple" will, in this book, be used to mean a tenant in fee simple in socage or lay tenure.