Baroda. I. A district in the province of Guzerat, British India, forming the territory of a native prince called the Guicowar, and lying between lat. 21° and 23° N. and lon. 73° and 74° E.; area, 4,400 sq. m.; pop. about 350,000. For the physical characteristics of the district, see Guzerat. Baroda has been under the rule of the family of the Guicowars since the early part of the 18th century, before which period its history is not recorded. In 1780 the East India company made a treaty of amity with the prince then reigning, Futteh Sing Guicowar, but kept up a merely formal intercourse with him and his successors till 1802, when, a rebellion taking place in the district, the ruling Guicowar applied to the governor of Bombay for aid. From this time till 1820 a series of similar appeals and of treaties brought Baroda gradually under the protection of the British, who also became answerable for certain debts of the Guicowar. In 1828, on his failure to discharge these, the East India company sequestrated a portion of his territory; but after some years the matter was arranged, and the district nominally restored to the native rule.

A strong British force is however kept in the Guicowar's dominions, and Baroda is in fact, like the other native dependencies in India, a tributary state. II. The capital of the preceding district, in lat. 22° 16' N., lon. 73° 15' E., on the Biswamintri river, which is crossed near the city by the only bridge in the province, 231 m. N. of Bombay; pop. 140,000. The fortifications of the town, though ancient, are unimportant in a military point of view. The houses are generally of wood, and have several stories. The two principal streets run at right angles to one another, crossing at the market place in the centre of the city. The palace of the Guicowar, the house of the British resident, and the market house are the principal buildings. Baroda was formerly a very important seat of trade, and of various industries; but since 1830 its prosperity has declined, and although it still carries on a considerable commerce with the country immediately about it, it has no noteworthy manufactures.

A State Procession at Baroda.

A State Procession at Baroda.