Beloochistan, Or Beloojistan, a country of Asia, between lat. 24° 50' and 30° 20' N. and lon. 57° 40' and 69o 18' E., bounded N. by Afghanistan, E. by Sinde, S. by the Indian ocean, and W. by Persia; area, about 106,000 sq. m.; pop. about 2,500,000. The general aspect of the country is mountainous; but toward the shore of the Arabian sea on the south, and toward Persia on the west, there are extensive barren plains. The Hala mountains on the east and northeast, running from the mouths of the Indus to the Solyman mountains, include a quantity of comparatively fertile land, of valley and upland plain, in which the inhabitants raise tropical grains and fruits. A strip of territory to the east of the Hala chain, which, although within the Indus valley, belongs to Be-loochistan, is very fertile, producing cereals and rich crops of jowarree (a grain much in demand in northern India), and various tropical productions. But the land here is low and swampy, to which indeed it owes its fertility, and, though more numerously inhabited than the other regions, is the most unhealthy of the whole. The remainder of the country is a barren wilderness.

On the X. E. boundary are situated the famous mountain passes, the Bolan and Gundwana. These form the direct road to Kelat, the capital, and the only means of communicating with the interior of the country, from the plains of N. W. India. There are no rivers worthy the name; a few mountain brooks attain considerable size in the spring, but do not endure; and the streams emptying from the southern coast into the sea are insignificant. The northeastern and eastern provinces or districts are Sa-rawan, Kelat, Cutch-Gundava, and Jhalawan. On the south along the seashore are the district of Loos and Mekran, the ancient Gedrosia. In the northwest are Kohistan and Kalpoora-kan. - The inhabitants of Beloochistan consist of two great varieties, the Belooches and the Brahooees, which are subdivided into other tribes, and these again into families. Their origin is uncertain, but they are probably a race of mixed Tartar and Persian descent. They themselves claim to belong to the earliest Mohammedan conquerors of central Asia, and are zealous Sunnis, tolerating an unbeliever rather than a Shiah. Polygamy is allowed. In their nomadic habits they resemble Tartars or Bedouins, living in tents of felt or canvas, and wearing a woollen cloth on their heads, with woollen or linen outer coats.

They are of slight but active forms, and practise arms and warlike exercises for amusement. Their women enjoy considerable freedom. The Bra-hooees speak a dialect resembling those of the Punjaub, and are shorter and stouter than the Belooches. They are somewhat less addicted to rapine and plunder than the others, and are said to be hospitable and observant of promises. The government is under various heads, of whom the khan of Kelat is leader in time of war, and a kind of feudal chief in peace. - Beloochistan was formerly subject to Persia and afterward to Afghanistan, but in the latter part of the last century the tribes shook off their dependence on the Afghans. At the time of the British expedition into Afghanistan the British forced the Bolan pass. The Belooches harassed the troops considerably; and in 1840 an expedition was sent against Kelat to chastise them, which was done effectually, but no permanent occupation was made.