Botany Bay, a harbor on the E. coast of Australia, county of Cumberland, New South Wales, 5 m. S. of Sydney, the N. head (Cape Banks) being in lat. 34° S., Ion. 115° 16' E. The harbor is about 5 m. long from N. to S. and 6 m. wide from E. to W., but the entrance is little over 1 m. across. It receives the waters of Cook's and George's rivers, is capacious and open, but affords poor shelter for shipping. The S. shore of Botany bay is the spot first touched at, in April, 1770, by Capt. Cook, on his discovering the E. coast of Australia. Though the coast there is comparatively barren, Mr. (afterward Sir Joseph) Banks, botanist of the expedition, was so impressed with the profusion of the unknown local flora that the name of Botany was given to the bay. The reports of Capt. Cook led the English authorities to send out Capt. Arthur Philipps, the first colonial governor, in 1788, with about 1,000 persons, over 700 of whom were convicts; but neither the harbor nor its swampy surroundings were suitable for colonization, and he removed the men to Port Jackson. A brass plate on the cliffs marks Capt. Cook's first landing place; and a monument was erected there in 1828, by Bougainville and Ducampier, in honor of La Perouse, who previous to his shipwreck was last heard from by the French government, through his letter dated Botany bay, Feb. 7, 1788.