Richard Cameron, a Scottish preacher, founder of the Cameronians, born in Falkland, Fife-shire, killed July 20, 1680. His father, a small shopkeeper, was an Episcopalian. Cameron followed for a time the same religious faith, and was appointed master of the parish school. This made him ex officio the precentor of the parish church. But having heard some field preachers, he was converted to Presbyterian-ism. Resigning his office as parochial master, he was ordained as a field licentiate. The Presbyterians were at that time divided into two parties, on account of a bill denominated the indulgence, which, by making their worship legal, was designed to harmonize them with the government and the established religion. Some of the ministers accepted the indulgence; others refused its protection, and opposed their brethren for acquiescence. Cameron soon became a powerful leader of the opponents, and when the government issued a proclamation to suppress them, he found it necessary to flee to Holland. He returned in 1680, renewed his hostility to the course of the government, and pushed his opposition to such an extreme that, soon after the defeat at Both-well Bridge, he marched into Sanquhar at the head of his troops, and formally declared war against the government.
Near Aird's Moss his band was attacked by the royal troops; he was killed; and his head and hands were cut off, carried to Edinburgh, and exposed on Netherbow Port. His name, first applied to his followers, has been since improperly extended to the persecuted Scottish Presbyterians in general.