Sadducees, the name of a Jewish sect, derived according to a Jewish tradition from Zadok, its reputed founder, in the 3d century B. C.; but Epiphanius derives it from the Hebrew word tzaddik (just), and says that the followers of the sect assumed this name. The Sadducees appear in history for the first time under the Maccabaean Jonathan, about 144 B. C. They acknowledged only the written law, rejecting the obligatory character of all traditions, and, according to Josephus, held that the soul dies with the body, denied providential interference, and made all human actions, with their good and evil results, solely dependent on the free will of men. In comparison with their opponents both in the religious and the political sphere, the more austere and popular Pharisees (see Pharisees), the sect was never numerous, but it was highly influential, as it mostly recruited itself from the educated and wealthy classes, and for a long time held the high-priestly office in its control. Toward the close of the existence of the Jewish state the Sadducees were excluded from Judaism, and gradually disappeared; but some of their principles were revived by the sect of Caraites. - See Grossmann, De Philosophia Sadducoeo-rum (Leipsic, 1836), and Wellhausen, Die Pha-risäer und die Sadducäer (Greifswald, 1874).