Baron Antoine Isaac Sylvestre De, a French orientalist, born in Paris, Sept. 21, 1758, died there, Feb. 21, 1838. After studying law, he devoted himself to oriental languages, and published in 1793 his Mémoires sur diverses an-tiquités de la Perse. He became in 1795 professor of Arabic at the oriental academy, in 1806 professor of Persian at the collége de France, and in 1815 rector of the university of Paris. Many of the most distinguished orientalists of the period were among his pupils. He was also politically active, espousing the side of the royalists. His principal works are: Chrestomathie arabe (3 vols., 1806); Gram-maire arabe (2 vols., 1810); Nouveaux aper-çus sur l'histoire de l'écriture chez les Arabes (1827); Anthologie grammaticale arabe (1829); and Exposé de la religion des Druses (2 vols., 1838). He published annotated editions and translations of several oriental writers, a valuable catalogue of his own library, and memoirs on minor subjects of oriental literature, history, and numismatics.
Samuel Ustazade Sylvestre De, a French author, son of the preceding, born in Paris, Oct. 17, 1801. After practising law, he became a prominent writer in the Journal des Débats as an opponent of Charles X. (1828-'30), and as a supporter of Louis Philippe (1830-'48). After the coup d'état of Dec. 2, 1851, he wrote chiefly on literary subjects. He was also keeper of the Mazarin library from 1836 to 1848, and subsequently its administrator. In 1854 he was elected to the academy, and in 1864 became 'a member of the council of education, and in 1867 of the senate. Among his works are Variétés littéraires, morales et historiques (2 vols., 1858; 2d ed., 1861), and editions of various authors, including Lettres de Madame de Sévigné (11 vols., 1861-'4).