Saint Petersburg, a N. W. government of Russia, bounded N. by the gulf of Finland, the government of Viborg, and Lake Ladoga, E. by Novgorod, S. by Pskov, and W. by Lake Peipus, which separates it from Livonia and Esthonia; area, 20,760 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,325,471. It is drained by the Neva, Luga, and Narva, which discharge their waters into the gulf of Finland, and the Volkhov, Svir, and other streams, which flow into Lake Ladoga. The surface is low and flat, and in many places swampy, but there are some low hills in the northeast, and a spur of the Valdai mountains enters it on the south. The climate is severe, and the soil mostly barren. It nearly corresponds to the former province of Ingria, and was the principal theatre of the long wars between the Swedes and the Russians. Peter the Great finally conquered it, and it was secured to Russia by the peace of Nystad in 1721. In 1871 the city of St. Petersburg was erected into an administrative district by itself, which left in the old government about 500,000 inhabitants.