Scaevola, the cognomen of several Romans.

I. Cains Mucius

Cains Mucius, a legendary hero, who flourished at the close of the 6th century B. C. Por-sena of Clusium, the protector of the expelled Tarquins, having besieged Rome and reduced the city to great distress, Mucius went to the hostile camp, where, mistaking the chief secretary for the monarch, he struck him a fatal blow. On being dragged before Porsena, he declared that his purpose was to assassinate the king, a deed which other Romans would still achieve; whereupon Porsena ordered him to be burned alive, unless he betrayed his fellow conspirators. Mucius, to show how little the threat affected him, thrust his right hand into a fire, and held it there while it was being consumed. Porsena, astonished at his fortitude, commanded him to be liberated; and Mucius informed him that 300 Roman youths had sworn to free Rome from so dangerous an enemy, or to perish in the attempt. Porsena thereupon made peace with the Romans; and Mucius, in consequence of the loss of his right hand, was ever after distinguished by the cognomen of Scaevola, or the left-handed.

II. Quintus Mucius

Quintus Mucius,called the augur, tribune of the people in 128 B. C, plebeian aedile in 125, praetor in 121, and consul with L. Caecilius Metellus in 117. He was distinguished for his legal erudition and his modesty. He died soon after the outbreak of the civil war between Marius and Sulla. Cicero in his youth was a pupil of this Mucius, whom he makes an interlocutor in several of his dialogues.

III. Quin-Tus Mucins

Quin-Tus Mucins, the pontifex, was tribune of the people in 106 B. C, curule aedile in 104, consul with L. Licinius Crassus in 95, and afterward pontifex maximus. After his consulship he obtained the province of Asia, where a festival was instituted in commemoration of his virtues. He fell a victim to the Marian faction in 82, and was slain in the temple of Vesta. He was still more celebrated as a lawyer than his contemporary and namesake. He was the first to compose a scientific treatise on the Jus Civile, now lost; and he wrote also IIεpi "Oρωυ, a work on legal definitions.