Adricn Auzout, a French mathematician and astronomer, born in Rouen, died in Rome about 1693. In conjunction with Picard, he applied the telescope to the mural quadrant. He invented and applied to the telescope a movable wire micrometer, on which he published a treatise in 1667. By the aid of this instrument he observed and measured the diurnal variation of the moon's diameter, first explained by Kepler. Auzout was an efficient optician and maker of telescopes. His observation and calculations of the comet of 1664 suggested to Louis XIV. the first idea of founding an observatory at Paris, and he was one of the original members of the academy of sciences, founded in 1666.
Adrien Baillet, a French scholar and writer, born at Neuville, in Picardy, June 13, 1649, died Jan. 21, 1706. He was educated for the church, but devoted his life to study and authorship. His most important publication was entitled "Judgments of the Learned upon the Principal Works of Authors," a book of criticism which taught better rules than it illustrated. He also produced a book on "Devotion to the Holy Virgin," the lives of the saints, which extended to 4 volumes, a life of Descartes, a history of Holland from 1609 to 1690, and numerous other works. For 26 years he was librarian to M. de Lamoignon, advocate general of the parliament of Paris, and made a catalogue of his library in 35 vols, folio.
Adrien Greslon, a French missionary in Canada and China, born at Perigueux in 1618, died in 1697. He came to America in 1647, and, after seeing the Huron mission destroyed and many of his fellow missionaries put to death by the Iroquois, returned to Europe in 1650. He went to China in 1657, and remained there till 1670. While in Chinese Tartary he is said to have met an Indian woman whom he had known on Lake Huron, and who had been sold from tribe to tribe. This led to the belief that America and Asia approached each other very nearly.
Aehille Louis Martinet, a French engraver, born in Paris in 1806. He studied under eminent artists, and in 1826 won the second, and in 1830 the first grand prize of Rome, where he spent live years. In 1835 he exhibited in Paris his engraving of Rembrandt's famous portrait of himself. He was so felicitous in his subsequent engravings from the works of the great Italian masters, that almost all prominent contemporary painters engaged him to engrave their pictures. One of his finest pieces is the engraving of Ary Scheffer's portrait of M. Viardot. Among his latest works are engravings of " The Nativity," by Murillo (1869); "The Virgin with the Pink," by Raphael (1872); and "The Martyrdom of St. Juliette and her Sons," by Heim (1873).
Aemllius Papiniams, a Roman jurist, born about A. D. 170, put to death in 212. He succeeded Septimius Severus as advocatus fisci, and when the latter became emperor (193) received the office of libellorum magister, and subsequently that of prcefectus prcetorio. In the second year of the reign of Caracalla he was beheaded by order and in the presence of that tyrant. Papinian was one of the most eminent of the Roman jurists. Among his pupils were Ulpian, Paulus, and others; and in the Digests are 595 extracts from his works.