The N E. part of Afghanistan, bounded N. by the Hindoo Koosh and Kafiristan, E. by the Punjaub, S. by Sewis-tan, S. W. by Candahar, and W. by the region of the Hazareh. It is about 250 m. in length from N. to S., and about 150 in breadth. It is traversed in the north, where it is very mountainous, by the Cabool river, flowing E. from the Hindoo Koosh to the Indus and its numerous affluents. The south is watered by the Gomal, another affluent of the Indus. It is inhabited by Durranis, Ghiljies, Tajiks, and other tribes. (See Afghanistan.) II. The capital of Afghanistan, situated on the Cabool river, immediately above its confluence with the Loghur, at the W. extremity of a plain in a recess formed by the junction of two mountain ranges, 6,396 ft. above the sea; lat. 34° 30' N., Ion. 69° 6' E.; pop. estimated at 60,000. The citadel, Bala Hissar, or upper fort, built on the declivity of a hill S. E. of the town, contains the palace and other buildings. The town is not surrounded by walls, but is in part covered by weak ramparts. Internally it is divided and subdivided by walls, through which the different parts of the city communicate with each other by narrow gates.
The streets are narrow, and the houses, built of sun-dried bricks and wood, are two or three stories high, with flat roofs. The serais, or public inns, are numerous, but neither convenient nor elegant. The baths are filthy. The river is crossed by three bridges, one of which is a substantial structure of brick and stone. The climate, from the proximity of snow-covered mountains and the elevation of the city, is severe during the winter, which begins in October and lasts through March. In this season the wealthy citizens remain within doors, but in summer they live almost entirely in the open air. The caravans between Persia and India pass through the city, and it is a place of considerable trade, being the emporium for the valley of the river. Its own industry, which is not important, consists chiefly in the manufacture of iron ware, leather, cotton, and shawls. - Cabool was for a short time the capital of the emperor Baber. In 1738 it was taken by Nadir Shah and annexed to his Persian dominions. In 1774 Ti-mour, the son of Ahmed Khan, made it the capital of the Durrani empire, and it so remained until the downfall of the dynasty.
Dost Mohammed Khan then took possession of it, and held it until he was ousted by the British in 1839. In 1842 the British destroyed the handsomest of the bazaars for which the city was celebrated, in punishment for the treachery of its inhabitants, and damaged the Bala Hissar.