Clements Robert Markham, an English geographer, born at Stillingfleet, near York, July 20, 1830. He was educated at Westminster school, and entered the navy in 1844. In 1840 he was appointed naval cadet on board a vessel on the Pacific station, and, having passed for a lieutenant, left the navy in 1851. In 1850 -'51 he served in the expedition in search of Sir John Franklin, and in 1852-4 explored the forests of the eastern Andes. In 1855 he became clerk in the board of control, and in 1858 secretary of the Ilakluyt society. Between 1859 and 1860 he again went to Peru and twice visited India, where he introduced the cultivation of the cinchona tree. In 1803 he was made secretary of the royal geographical society, and in 1807 assistant secretary in the India office, receiving charge of its geographical department in 1808. In the latter year he was appointed geographer to the Abyssinian expedition, and was present at the storming of Magdala. Besides many translations for the Ilakluyt society and papers in the journal of the royal geographical society, he has published "Franklin's Footsteps" (1852); "Cuzco and Lima" (1850); " Travels in Peru and India" (1862); "Quichua Grammar and Dictionary " (1803); "Spanish Irrigation " (1807); 'History of the Abvssinian Expedition" (1809); "Life of the Great Lord Fairfax" (1870); Ollanta, a Quichua Drama" (1871); "Memoir on the Indian Surveys" (1871); a translation, printed by the Ilakluyt societv, of the "Reports on the Conquest of Peru" (1872); "The Threshold of the Unknown Regions" (1873); and a "General Sketch of the History of Persia" (1874). He is the editor of the "Geographical Magazine".