Colophon, one of the twelve Ionian cities on the coast of Asia Minor, situated about 9 m. N. W. of Ephesus on the banks of the Halesus, a small stream, famed for the coldness of its waters. It was 2 m. from the coast, on which, however, it had a port, named Notium. The city and the port were connected by long walls. It suffered much from the Lydian king Gyges, from the Persians during the Peloponnesian war, and afterward from Lysimachus, king of Thrace. The name Colophon was finally transferred to Notium. Only a few miserable cabins now mark its site. Colophon, according to Strabo, was celebrated both for its navy and its cavalry; indeed, the latter was so efficient, that it was said to carry victory wherever it went. Livy tells us that it was one of the cities honored by the Romans with exemption from taxation. It was one of the seven cities which claimed the honor of having given birth to Homer. Mimnermus and Hermesianax the elegiac poets, Polymnestus the musician, Antimachus, Xenophanes, and Nicander were born there.