Cramer. I. Johann Andreas, a German poet and theologian, born at Johstadt, Saxony, Jan. 29, 1723, died in Kiel, June 12, 1788. He was an eloquent and learned divine, and next to Gellert the best of the religious poets whose writings contributed so much toward the regeneration of German poetry. He was pastor in various places, and through Klopstock's influence became in 1754 chief preacher at the court of Copenhagen. He acted there also as professor of theology from 1765 to 1771, and subsequently occupied important posts in Lii-beck and Kiel, where in 1784 he became chancellor and curator of the university. He wrote a biography of Gellert (Leipsic, 1774), translated Bossuet's universal history, and prepared a poetical version of the Psalms (4 vols., 1762-'4). His poetical works were published in 1782-'3 (3 vols.), and his posthumous poetry at Hamburg in 1791. II. Karl Friedrich, son of the preceding, born in Quedlinburg, March 7, 1752, died in Kiel, Dec. 8, 1807. He was a student and member of the Dichterbund or poets' league at Gottingen, and subsequently became professor at Kiel, which post he lost in 1794 on account of his sympathy with the French revolution. He then established himself as a bookseller and publisher in Paris, but lost his fortune, and was obliged to leave the city.

Klopstock addressed to him one of his most beautiful odes, and his principal works relate to that poet (Klopstock: Er und uber ihn, 5 vols., Hamburg, 1779-'92; Klopstoclc, in Fragmenten aus Brief en von Tellow an Elisa, 2 vols., 1777). He also published a French-German dictionary, and various works relating to his observations and experiences in Paris, besides translations from English and French into German, and from German into French.