Esslingen, a town of Wurtemberg, Germany, on the Neckar, 9 m. S. E. of Stuttgart, on the Ulm railway; pop. in 1871, 17,941. It is a place of great antiquity, and has old walls flanked with towers, and the old Berfried castle. The Frauenkirche is an admirable specimen of Gothic architecture of the 15th century, and is attended both by Protestants and Roman Catholics. The church of St. Dionysius was built in the Romanesque style in the 13th century, and enlarged in the 15th. There are several superior educational institutions, and a school for the deaf and dumb, and adjoining the town is the water-cure establishment of Kennenburg for the relief of the insane. Ess-lingen is important for its trade and industry. The fruit market is especially renowned; the culture of the vine is extensive, and the celebrated Esslingen champagne is the oldest sparkling wine in Germany. Railway locomotives are exported to many parts of the world. There are many manufactories of cloth, cotton, and woollen goods, optical and physical instruments, etc - Esslingen became a free imperial city under the Hohenstaufen. The Swabian league was founded here in 1488. Its prosperity, increased after the reformation, but impaired by the thirty years' war and by intestine commotions, has been revived since 1801, when it became part of Wurtemberg.