Herbarium , a collection of dried plants, formerly called a hortus siccus. In collecting specimens, the whole plant, including root, is taken if not over 15 in. high, if possible selecting those which present both flower and fruit. With larger plants such portions are taken as will accurately represent the whole; if the leaves vary in form, specimens of each kind should be included, as well as young shoots, buds, flowers, and fruit. The specimens are dried between sheets of bibulous paper, which are changed more or less frequently according to the climate and the character of the plants. When thoroughly dry, the flowers and soft parts are poisoned, to prevent their destruction by insects, by sprinkling them with an alcoholic solution of corrosive sublimate and keeping them between papers until this is dry. The specimens are finally mounted upon sheets of heavy white paper by gluing them down, or by fastening them by means of small straps of gummed paper; one species only is placed upon a sheet, but several small specimens of the same species in different stages, or from different localities, J are put upon the same sheet. The name of the plant is written at the lower right-hand | corner, or a ticket containing it is pasted there.
The species of each genus are placed together in a fold of heavy manila paper, upon the lower left-hand corner of which the name of the genus is written. The specimens in their genus covers are then placed in a cabinet or case with pigeonholes large enough to allow them to lie flat, which should close tightly to exclude dust and insects. The genera are gathered into families or orders, following whatever lineal arrangement may be preferred. The size of the paper is a matter of importance; great annoyance results from having it too small, and if needlessly large it increases the expense. Most American botanists adopt the size of 11 1/2 by 16 1/2 in.; the herbarium of Linnaeus is on ordinary foolscap sheets. Among the celebrated collections of Europe are the Kew, the Linna3an, and the Banksian herbaria, the last at the British museum. The herbaria of the Paris museum, of Berlin, of St. Petersburg, and many others, are of great extent and value. In this country, the Gray herbarium at Harvard, the Torrey and Meisner herbaria at Columbia college, and that of the academy of natural sciences at Philadelphia, are the most important; and there are many smaller ones, including those of botanists who study in special departments, of great scientific interest.