Hermopolis Magna , a city of ancient Egypt, on the left bank of the Nile, lat. 27° 45' N. It was the capital under the Greek rulers of a nome on the borders of Middle and Upper Egypt, and is sometimes classed in one and sometimes in the other division. It was a place of great opulence, ranking second to Thebes alone, and was famous for the worship of Typhon and of Thoth. Its name was derived from the latter divinity, who was supposed to correspond to the Greek Hermes. A little S. of it was the castle of Hermopolis, where vessels from the upper country paid toll. At the base of the Libyan hills, W. of the city, was the necropolis, where numerous mummies have been found. The Ptolemies erected many magnificent structures in Hermopolis, but there are now few remains. A part of the portico of the temple of Thoth was standing during the present century, but being of calcareous stone it was burned by the Turks for lime. The village of Ashmoonein or Eshmoon now occupies the southern extremity of the mounds on the site of Hermopolis. The principal occupation of the inhabitants, who number about 4,000, is excavating the mounds for nitre.