Hiero , or Hieron (Gr. I. Tyrant of Syracuse, succeeded his brother Gelon about 478 B. C, died in Catana in 467. After having made peace with his brother Polyzelus and Theron of Agrigentum, with whom ho had been at variance, he turned his attention to foreign conquest. In Sicily he made himself master of Naxos and Catana, whose inhabitants he transferred to Leontini, while he re-peopled those cities with colonists of Dorian origin. In Italy he prevented the destruction of Locri by threatening its enemy Anaxilas with war, and subsequently effected the expulsion of the tyrant Micythus from Rhegium. But the most glorious event of his reign was his great victory over the Etruscan fleet near Cumae, in 474. He was a liberal patron of poets and philosophers. His triumphs at the Olympian and Pythian games are celebrated in the odes of Pindar. II. King of Syracuse, son of Hierocles, born about 307 B. C, died about 216. He was appointed commander after the departure of Pyrrhus in 275, and in consequence of a great victory over the Ma-mertines was raised to the throne by the suffrages of his fellow citizens in 270. His great object appears to have been the expulsion of the Mamertines from Sicily; and when the Romans took them under their protection, Hiero allied himself with the Carthaginians, who had just arrived in Sicily with a powerful force in 264. The combined armies of the Carthaginians and Syracusans then proceeded to lay siege to Messana; but Hiero, having been attacked and defeated by Appius Claudius, the Roman consul, was panic-struck, and retreated precipitately to Syracuse. Soon after this disaster, seeing his territory laid waste by the Romans, and many of his cities in their possession, he deemed it prudent to abandon the Carthaginian alliance, and concluded a treaty with the Romans (263), by which he secured to himself the whole S. E. and E. of Sicily as far as Tauromenium. From this period till his death, nearly half a century, Hiero remained the steady friend of the Romans, and when he visited Rome was received with the highest honors.
In 241 his treaty with them was changed into a perpetual alliance, and in the beginning of the second Panic war he fitted out a fleet to cooperate with that of Sempronius, and offered to clothe and feed the Roman forces in Sicily at his own expense. After the battles of Lake Thrasy-menus and Cannae he sent troops and liberal supplies of corn and money to Rome, and a golden statue of Victory, which was set up in the capitol. His government was singularly wise and popular, and he built numerous magnificent temples, altars, and public works in Syracuse and Acra3. Archimedes was his friend. He was succeeded by his grandson Hieronymus.