Jean Civiale, a French surgeon, the originator of the modern operation of lithotrity, born near Thiezac. Auvergne, in 1792, died in Paris, June 13, 186T. At a very early age, while a pupil of Dupuytren at the lintel Dieu hospital in Paris, his attention is said to have been attracted to the subject of his future discovery; and after many years of perseverance he succeeded, not without encountering opposition and even ridicule, in perfecting his ideas, and introducing to the profession his new operation of lithotrity, i. e., crushing stone in the bladder and removing it by the natural passages. Before that time the only means of extracting from the bladder a calculus of considerable size, was the serious and often dangerous operation of lithotomy. (See Stone.) He was the teacher of several generations of lithotritists, both of his own and other countries, and became a member of the medical academy, an associate member of the institute, and an officer of the legion of honor. His principal publications are: De la lithotritie, ou oroiement de la pierre (Paris, 1827); Let-tres sur la lithotritie, etc. (1827); Traite pratique et historique de la lithotritie (1847); Resultats cliniques de la lithotritie pendant les annees 1860-'64 (1865). At the time of his death he had nearly finished Guide pratique pour les operations de la taille et de la lithotritie, since published under the direction of M. Guardia, the deputy librarian of the academy of medicine, with a biographical sketch, and L'Histoire de la lithotritie, d'apres des documents inedits.