Jean Marie Gaspard Itard, a French surgeon, born at Oraison, Provence, in 1775, died in Paris, July 5, 1838. At 18 he was appointed by the revolutionary committee surgeon of the military hospital of Toulon, although he had never read a medical book or seen a surgical operation. He devoted himself to study, and two years later was made a surgeon of the second class at the hospital of Val de Grace. In 1799 he was appointed physician of the institution for deaf mutes, where he became known by his efforts to instruct a young man found wild in the forests of Aveyron. (See Idiocy.) In 1801 Itard published a memoir giving the results of a year's effort in instructing him, and in 1807 another giving the final results. He next gave his attention to the training of deaf mutes in articulation, in which he succeeded almost as well as Pereira. In 1821 he published an elaborate work, in 2 vols. 8vo, on the diseases of the ear and of the sense of hearing. He also wrote a treatise on pneumothorax.