Johann Martin Lappenberg, a German historian, born in Hamburg, July 30, 1794, died Nov. 28, 1865. The son of a physician, he was sent to study medicine at Edinburgh, but applied himself to historical and political researches. After visiting the highlands and the Hebrides, he went to London, where he studied the English government and constitution. He continued his legal studies at Berlin and Got-tingen, and received the degree of doctor in 1816. He was sent by the senate of Hamburg during the congress of Troppau as minister resident to the Prussian court, and resided in Berlin till in 1823 he was appointed to the charge of the archives of Hamburg. In this office he discovered many valuable historical memoirs that were supposed to be lost, among which were the records of the old cathedral of Hamburg. He also made an important collection of diplomatic notes in a journey through the north of Europe. In 1848 he became a member of the senate. In 1850 he took part as plenipotentiary in the negotiations at Frankfort, which ended with the pacification of Germany by the convention of Olmutz. Many of his historical works relate to the antiquities of the Hanse towns, especially Hamburg, and of northern Germany. Among them are: Ur-kundliche Geschichte des Ursprungs der Deu-tschen Hansa (2 vols., Hamburg, 1830), a continuation of the work of Sartorius; Die Geschichte Helgolands(1831); Hamburgisches Ur-kundenbuch (1842); Die Elbkarte des Melchi-or Lorichs (1847); and Hamburger Chroniken (1852-'61). His most remarkable work is the Geschichte ton England (2 vols., Hamburg, 1834-'7), continued by Pauli (2 vols., 1853-'5), and translated into English by Benjamin Thorpe, under the title of "History of England under the Normans," with additions and comments by the translator (London, 1845-57). He made valuable contributions to the Monu-menta of Pertz, and to the Encyllopadie of Ersch and Gruber, and published editions of several old authors.