The coronation of Otho I. of Germany by Pope John XII. at Rome in 962 was considered as having transferred the imperial dignity bestowed by Leo III. on Charlemagne (800) from his Italian to his German successors, the title of emperor depending, however, on the coronation at Rome. Before that coronation the German monarchs, down to the time of Maximilian L, styled themselves kings of Germany (though by historians indiscriminately designated as emperors), and improperly also kings of the Romans. In a stricter sense the latter title belonged to the princes elected in the lifetime of crowned emperors to succeed them; Henry VI. was thus elected king of the Romans, or future emperor, in the lifetime of his father Frederick Barba-rossa (1169). Maximilian I. and his successors assumed the imperial title, and were crowned as emperors in Germany without being crowned in Rome, Charles V. alone being crowned by the pope. Their successors elect continued to be called kings of the Romans down to Joseph II., who was elected in the lifetime of his father Francis I. (1764), and the empire continued to be called the holy Roman empire down to its dissolution in 1806.