Ladoga, a lake of Russia, the largest in Europe, surrounded by the governments of Vi-borg, Olonetz, and St. Petersburg, and lving between lat. 59° 58' and 61° 46' N., and lon. 29° 50' and 32° 55' E.; length 124 m., greatest breadth 87 m.; area, about 7,000 sq. m. It is 59 ft. above the sea. Its depth is very variable, being in some places upward of 150 fathoms, and in others too shallow for navigation. Its coast is generally low, much indented, and dangerous from hidden reefs. Its waters abound with fish. Storms are frequent and sudden, and the influx of 70 streams causes strong and uncertain currents. It is connected with Lake Onega by the river Svir, with Lake Ilmen by the Volkhov, and with the gulf of Finland by the Neva. It contains several islands, some of them inhabited; the largest are Valaam on the north and Konevetz on the south. The principal towns on its coasts are Kexholm, Schlusselburg, Serdobol, and Novaia (New) Ladoga. The Ladoga, Sias, and Svir canals form a continuous line around the S. and S. E. sides of the lake; and by the artificial union of several rivers and lakes vessels pass from the Baltic to the Volga and thence to the Caspian sea.

There is communication also with the White sea.