Lipans, a tribe of American Indians, a branch of the Apaches. In the last century they roamed from the Rio Grande and the borders of Chihuahua to the grounds of the Comanches, and made war on the Spanish frontiers and the more settled tribes. In 1721 they killed the missionary Father Joseph Pita at a place which was called in consequence Carniceria. They resembled their allies the Comanches in their habits, but were more enterprising and warlike. They made some progress in civilization, and many learned to speak Spanish. They thus came to figure in the revolutions of Mexico; 300 Lipans under Capt. Menchaca formed part of the force which captured Hidalgo in Coahuila in 1811; and in 1813 a party of them under Capt. McFarland were engaged in the battle of Rosales, where the Spaniards were defeated. When Texas became a republic, the Lipans were next to the Comanches the most powerful tribe in its territory. They ranged from Austin to Corpus Christi, and, though brave and daring, seem not to have often molested the Texans, but plundered the Mexicans. In the summer of 1848 a collision occurred with the Texans, with loss on both sides. The Lipans then retired up the Brazos, and began a desolating war.

They gave up their Mexican prisoners in 1851, and were advised to avoid the hostility of the Texans, whose settlements were spreading, and who disregarded the old established Indian line. Texas finally established reservations in 1854, but the Lipans, instead of going on them, returned to Mexico, numbering at the time 560, and constantly raided into Texas. After the close of the civil war the United States endeavored to draw back the Indians who had gone to Mexico. Some of the Lipans entered New Mexico in 1872, but did not remain. The next year a party raiding into Texas were pursued by Gen. McKenzie, who struck a Kickapoo camp, killing several. Soon afterward the Kickapoos were induced to remove back to the United States, but efforts to recover the Lipans failed