Andorra, a small republic situated between the French town of Foix, in the department of Ariege, and the Spanish town of Urgel, in the province of Lerida, in valleys shut in on all sides by the Pyrenees, excepting on the south along the Balira and its affluents; area, 200 sq. m.; pop. estimated at about 12,000. It is divided into 6 communes. The capital, of the same name, is in lat. 42° 30' N., lon. 1° 30' E., 30 m. S. of Foix and 12 m. N. of Urgel; pop. about 800. The other principal places are Ordino, San Julian, Encam, Canillo, Masana, and the beautifully situated springs of Escaldas, which French speculators have sought to convert into a fashionable watering and gambling place. The chief products are tobacco, grapes, and timber. Game abounds. Cereals are imported from France. There is some traffic in wood, iron, and wool, but the principal occupation is cattle raising. - The Andor-rans, having assisted Charlemagne against the Moors, were rewarded with the privilege of self-government, the emperor only reserving to his crown some feudal claims, which were ceded in 819 by Louis le Debonnaire to the bishop of Urgel. The counts of Foix and subsequently Henry IV. reasserted these claims, but they were relinquished during the French revolution, and partly restored in 1806 at the request of the people of Andorra. The republic continues to maintain its independence under the suzerainty of France and the authority of the bishop of Urgel. The executive power is held by the president or first syndic of the general council, assisted by a second syndic, both elected for four years by its 24 members, who are themselves elected for the same term by four heads of families of each commune.

Justice is administered by two viguiers or primary magistrates, respectively appointed by the French government and by the bishop of Urgel, who also alternately name a civil magistrate. The republic pays a biennial tribute of 960 francs to France and one of 891 francs in the intervening years to the bishop of Urgel. The An-dorrans are a fine, vigorous race, who boast of their poverty as preserving their freedom, and are very proud of their ancient institutions. Every man from 16 to 60 is trained as a soldier. They are illiterate, and so incommunicative that in Catalonia to assume ignorance is called to play the Andorran. They are, however, kindly and hospitable, marry chiefly among themselves, and the principal families are all related to each other. They speak a Catalonian dialect. The bishop of Urgel is the sole dispenser of ecclesiastical patronage for four months, his appointments being subject to papal ratification during the rest of the year.

See Baquer's Historia de la republica de Andorra (Barcelona, 1849); Ziegler's Reise in Spanien (Leipsic, 1852); and Bayard Taylor's "By-Ways of Europe" (New York, 1869).