Frederick Francis II., grand duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, a German soldier, born Feb. 28, 1823. He became grand duke in 1842, was in the same year made a general in the Prussian army, and participated in 1864 in the war against Denmark, and in 1866 against Austria. He joined in 1867 the North German confederation, and on the outbreak of the Franco-German war (July, 1870) he was made commander-in-chief of the 13th army corps, He captured Laon (Sept. 9), Toul (Sept. 23), and Soissons (Oct. 16), and was placed at the head of a new Corps in the operations against Paris. He defeated Keratry at Dreux (Nov. 17), and after joining in various engagements near Orleans under Prince Frederick Charles, he took possession of Blois (Dec. 13) and contributed to the defeat of Gen. Chanzy near Vendome (Dec. 15) and Le Mans (Jan. 12, 1871), and captured Alencon. His grand duchy had in the mean while become a member of the German empire. On the entrance of the German army into Berlin (June 16, 1871) the emperor William appointed him chief of the second inspection of the army.