Frederick, the name of several monarchs and princes, arranged below under their respective countries in alphabetical order:
Frederick I., grand duke, born Sept. 9, 1820. The second son of the grand duke Leopold, he became regent for his brother, who was bodily and intellectually infirm, April 24, 1852, succeeded as grand duke Sept. 5, 1856, and married in the same year a daughter of the present emperor of Germany. He is distinguished by his enlightened views of civil and religious government. At the gathering of princes at Frankfort in 1803 he opposed the plans of Austria, and urged the supremacy of Prussia. He was nevertheless constrained, together with the other states of south Germany, to side with Austria in the war of 1866, but subsequently he readily and closely allied himself with the North German confederation. During the Franco-German war he went to Versailles, and strenuously exerted himself in favor of the formation of the German empire and the imperial constitution.