Frederick. I. A N. county of Maryland, bordering on Pennsylvania, and separated from Virginia on the S. W. by the Potomac river; area about 770 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 47,572, of whom 7,572 were colored. A branch of the Blue Ridge of Virginia, called South mountain, runs along its W. border, but most of the land in the central and E. parts is undulating. The soil is fertile and well watered by the Monocacy river, Cotoctin, Pipe, Lin-ganore, and Bennett's creeks. Copper, iron, manganese, excellent limestone, and fine white marble are among the mineral products. The county is traversed by the Baltimore and Ohio and the Western Maryland railroads, and has on its S. W. border the Potomac river and the Ohio and Chesapeake canal. The chief productions in 1870 were 1,133,623 bushels of wheat, 54,995 of rye, 1,300,420 of corn, 250,-009 of oats, 138,484 of potatoes, 32,893 tons of hay, 877,784 lbs. of butter, 34,533 of wool, and 274,309 of tobacco. There were 11,800 horses, 11,907 milch cows, 10,188 other cattle, 9,817 sheep, and 29,939 swine; 16manufactories of carriages and wagons, 1 of charcoal, 15 of clothing, 25 of barrels and casks, 2 of fertilizers, 15 of furniture, 0 of lime, 16 of saddlery and harness, 3 of sashes, doors, and blinds, 11 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 10 of cigars, 8 of woollen goods, 4 of bricks, 47 flour mills, 4 iron works, 21 tanneries, 10 currying establishments, and 2 distilleries.
II. A N. county of Virginia, bounded N. E. and W. by West Virginia; area, 378 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 10,590, of whom 2,733 were colored. It occupies part of the great valley of Virginia, is highly productive, and abounds in fine mountain scenery. Two or three small affluents of the Potomac supply it with good water power. The Winchester, Potomac, and Strasburg railroad passes through the county. The chief productions in 1870 were 239,098 bushels of wheat, 182,672 of Indian corn, 76,743 of oats, 22,661 of potatoes, 8,725 tons of hay, 230,178 lbs. of butter, and 26,928 of wool. There were 3,990 horses, 3,405 milch cows, 4,122 other cattle, 6,641 sheep, and 0,702 swine; 7 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 3 of gloves, 2 of stoves, etc, 1 of ground sumach, 7 of woollen goods, and 19 flour mills. Capital, Winchester.
Frederick, a city and the capital of Frederick co., Maryland, situated on Carroll's creek, 2 m. from its mouth in Monocacy river, about 40 m. W. by N. of Baltimore; pop. in 1850, 6,028; in 1800, 8,143; in 1870, 8,520, of whom 1,822 were colored. It is a well built city, with wide regular streets, lined with houses of brick or stone. A branch railroad 3 m. long connects it with the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. It has an extensive trade, and important manufactures of iron, wool, paper, flour, leather, etc. There are four national banks, with an aggregate capital of $575.000; a savings bank, with $217,231 capital; three weekly newspapers, and 10 or 12 churches. The city is the seat of several important educational and religious institutions. Frederick college, established by the state in 1797, in 1872 had 3 professors, 109 students, and a library of 2,300 volumes. Frederick female seminary, established in 1842, had 8 instructors, 81 students, and a library of 1,000 volumes. The convent of the Visitation nuns has an academy and a library of 1,000 volumes, and the house for novices of the society of Jesus 1,100 volumes.
A state institution for the education of the deaf and dumb was organized here in 1807, which in 1872 had 9 instructors, 97 pupils, and a library of 2,000 volumes.