Galena, a city, port of delivery, and the county seat of Jo Daviess co., Illinois, and the centre of the region known as the Galena lead mines," situated on both sides of the Galena river, 6 m. from its mouth in the Mississippi, and on the N. division of the Illinois Central railroad, 14 m. S. E. of Dubuque, Iowa; pop. in 1850, 6,004; in 18G0, 8,196; in 1870, 7,019, of whom 2,473 were foreigners. Galena river is generally navigable for any steamboats that can ascend the rapids of the Mississippi. The ground upon which the city is built rises abruptly at a short distance from the river on both sides, and some of the bluffs reach a height of upward of 200 ft. These blutfs, which encircle the whole city, are composed of mountain limestone, and give the place an extremely irregular and picturesque appearance. The streets rise one above another, and communicate with each other by steps. The public and private buildings are mostly of brick, and many of them in a good style of architecture. On the W. side of the river are a fine high school building, the United States marine hospital (now used by the normal school), and the government building, accommodating the custom house and post office. In the environs are many streams of water, which afford ample power for manufacturing purposes.
The city contains an iron foundery, two manufactories of furniture, a woollen mill, two flour mills, a saw mill, two planing mills, and a sash and blind. factory. There are two national banks, with a capital of $325,000. For the year ending June 30, 1873, the number of vessels belonging to the port was 60, with an aggregate tonnage of 7,782, of which 25 of 3,763 tons were steamers, and 35 of 4,019 tons barges. The shipments in 1872 were 800,000 bushels of oats, 75,000 pigs of lead, 4,000 tons of zinc ore, 75,000 barrels of flour, 46,000 of pork and lard, 42,000 dressed hogs, and 250,000 lbs. of meat in bulk; receipts, 7,000,000 feet of lumber. The Northwestern German-English normal school in 1872 had 6 instructors and 62 students. The number of public schools was 16, having 19 teachers and 893 pupils. There are one daily, one tri-weekly, and three weekly (one German) newspapers, and 12 churches.-Galena was laid out in 1827, and incorporated as a city in 1839, deriving its name from the sulphuret of lead so called, which abounds in the locality. (See Lead.)